|Abbreviation: 疆 (pinyin: Jiāng)|
|Origin of Name|| 新 xīn – new|
疆 jiāng – frontier
|Administration Type||Autonomous region|
| Capital and|
|CPC Xinjiang Committee Secretary||Wang Lequan|
|Area||1,660,000 km² (1st)|
| Population (2002) |
| 19,050,000 (24th) |
| GDP (2002)|
- per capita
| 159.8 billion ¥ (25th) |
8390 ¥ (12th)
|Major Nationalities (2000)|| Uyghur – 45%|
Han – 41%
Kazakh – 7%
Hui – 5%
Kirghiz – 0.9%
Mongol – 0.8%
Dongxiang – 0.3%
Tajik – 0.2%
Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: "New Frontier"; Uyghur: شىنجاڭ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Historically and also among independence advocates, it is sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (Turkestan also spelled Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. The capital is Ürümqi. Xinjiang's area is 1,650,000 km² (637,000 sq.mi) and the population is estimated at about 19 million.
Table of contents
Traversed by the Silk Road, Xinjiang is the Chinese name for the Tarim and Jungar regions of what is now northwest China. Over the past two millenia the Xinjiang region has been part of the territory ruled by the Turk Empire, Tibet, the Idiqut Uyghur Kingdom, the Yarkand Moghul Khanate, and the Jungars, as well as roughly 125 years under the Han and Tang dynasties of China. The Qing Empire has controlled the territory since the 1758 conquest by the Manchu Emperor Qianlong. Manchu rule was thrown out in 1864 and independence was established under the leadership of Yaqub Beg until 1877, when the Manchus reconquered the region, and officially established Xinjiang Province ("new frontier") in 1884.
Following insurgencies against Governor Yang Zengxin in the early 1930's, a rebellion in Kashgar led to the establishment of the short-lived First East Turkistan Republic in 1933. Xinjiang was eventually brought under the control of Han Chinese warlord Sheng Shicai. A Second East Turkistan Republic (also known as the Three Districts Rebellion) existed from 1944-1949 with Soviet support in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northern Xinjiang.
The autonomous region of the PRC was established on October 1, 1955. There is an active independence movement in the region that engages in violence from time to time. Independence advocates view Chinese rule in Xinjiang as Chinese imperialism.
Xinjiang contains 2 prefecture-level cities, 7 prefectures, and 5 autonomous prefectures. Below them, there are 11 districts, 20 county-level cities, 62 counties, and 6 autonomous counties. Four of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, so are administered directly by the province. They are the direct-control county-level administrative units (直辖县级行政单位).
|Directly administered county-level cities|
Xinjiang's lowest point is 155 metres below sea level (lowest point in the PRC as well). Its highest peak is 8611 metres above sea level on the border with Kashmir.
Xinjiang has within its borders the point of land remotest from the sea (Lat. 46 degrees 16.8 minutes N, Long. 86 degrees 40.2 minutes E) in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, 1,645 miles (2648 km) from the nearest coastline (straight-line distance).
- Provinces: Tibet, Gansu, and Qinghai
- Countries: Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India (Kashmir).
Rivers include: Tarim River
Xinjiang is home to several Muslim Turkic groups including the Uyghurs and the Kazakhs. Other PRC minority ethnic groups include Hui Chinese, the Kirghiz, the Mongols, the Russians, the Xibes, the Tajik, the Uzbek, the Tatars, and the Manchus.
The percentage of ethnic Han Chinese in Xinjiang has grown from 6 percent in 1949 to over 40 percent at present. Much of this transformation can be attributed to the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps (XPCC), a semi-military organization of settlers that has built farms, towns, and cities over scattered parts of Xinjiang. The demographic transformation is commonly held as a threat to Uyghurs and other non-Han ethnicities in maintaining their culture, in a case similar to that of Tibet.
The Uighurs trace descent to both the Turkic Uighurs and the pre-Turkic Indo-European Tocharians (or Tokharians), and fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them.
|+ Populations of ethnicities in 2000 Census|
Main article: List of Xinjiang-related topics
Professional sports teams in Xinjiang include:
Supporters of Uyghur independence in East Turkestan are active in Xinjiang.
- Chinese Civilization and its Discontents by Benjamin Paarmann
- Release of Rebiya Kadeer: No end, but a beginning by Kilic Bugra Kanat
- Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government (in Simplified Chinese)
- Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government (in English)
- Xinjiang University
- Subdivision info (in Simplified Chinese)
- International Taklamakan Human Rights Association
- Uyghur Human Rights Project
- East Turkistan Information Center
- Uyghur Information Agency
- Uyghur American Association
- Citizens Against Communist Chinese Propaganda
- Uyghur Scholars Homepage
- Xinjiang Numismatics
- Uyghur Culture and History
- Qazaq History in Xinjiang
|Province-level divisions administered by the People's Republic of China|
|Countries in Central Asia|