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Springfield, Missouri

Springfield is the third largest city in Missouri. It is the county seat of Greene County6. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 151,580.

Table of contents

Geography

Springfield is located at 37°11'42" North, 93°17'10" West (37.195098, -93.286213)1.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 191.1 km² (73.8 mi²). 189.5 km² (73.2 mi²) of it is land and 1.7 km² (0.6 mi²) of it is water. The total area is 0.87% water.

Demographics

As of the census2 of 2000, there are 151,580 people, 64,691 households, and 35,709 families residing in the city. The population density is 800.0/km² (2,072.0/mi²). There are 69,650 housing units at an average density of 367.6/km² (952.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city is 91.69% White, 3.27% African American, 0.75% Native American, 1.36% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.88% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. 2.31% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There are 64,691 households out of which 24.0% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% are married couples living together, 10.9% have a female householder with no husband present, and 44.8% are non-families. 35.3% of all households are made up of individuals and 11.6% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.17 and the average family size is 2.82.

In the city the population is spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 17.4% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 14.9% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 34 years. For every 100 females there are 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 90.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city is $29,563, and the median income for a family is $38,114. Males have a median income of $27,778 versus $20,980 for females. The per capita income for the city is $17,711. 15.9% of the population and 9.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 19.1% of those under the age of 18 and 7.9% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

History

1829: Future site of Springfield designated by John Polk Campbell. The first settlers (the brothers Fulbright and their families) follow in 1830.

1835: Springfield becomes the county seat of Greene County.

February 18, 1838: Springfield is first incorporated with a population of 300.

1858: The first westbound stagecoach, the Butterfield Overland Mail, reaches Springfield.

1861: American Civil War – Union troops under Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon take control of the city soon after war breaks out.

August 10, 1861: American Civil War Battle of Wilson's Creek – Confederate forces under Brig. Gen. Benjamin McCulloch and Maj. Gen. Sterling Price march on the city. Confederate and Union forces meet 12 miles outside the city. In the bloody fighting which ensues, Gen. Lyon is killed and Col. Franz Sigel leads a Union retreat to Springfield and then Rolla. Confederate troops occupy Springfield.

1862: American Civil War – Confederates abandon Springfield to Union forces led by Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis.

January 8, 1863: American Civil War Battle of Springfield – A Union garrison under Brig. Gen. Egbert Brown repels a Confederate attack led by Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke.

July 21, 1865: Wild Bill Hickok shoots Dave Tutt dead in the town square over a gambling dispute in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.

1870: First railroad, the St. Louis-San Francisco line.

January, 1888: First mail delivery.

1905: Three African-American men are lynched in the town square for allegedly raping a white woman, though guilt was never established. This event sparked a mass exodus of African-Americans from the area, who still remain a vast minority.

1910: First electric lights installed.

1927: First radio station.

January, 1955: First color television broadcast in the city by KOLR-TV.

Landmarks

Wilson's Creek National Battlefield, site of the Battle of Wilson's Creek, is a few miles southwest of Springfield.

The 14 acre (57,000 m²) National Cemetery at Springfield is the only cemetery in the United States where the dead on both sides of the American Civil War are buried side by side.

Bass Pro Shops and the Assemblies of God are headquartered in Springfield.

Colleges and universities located in Springfield include Baptist Bible College, Central Bible College, Drury University, Evangel University, Forest Institute of Professional Psychology, Missouri State University, Ozarks Technical Community College, St. John's College of Nursing and Health Sciences of Southwest Baptist University.

Issues

In 2003, the city council of Springfield enacted an ordinance requiring all restaurants not earning 20% of their revenue from alcohol or seating fewer than 50 people to be smoke free. This ordinance was part of a broader plan, called 'Smoke Free Springfield,' that included barring cigarette smoking from all public buildings. The initiative, lauded by health and environmental advocates, came under fire for its alleged intrusiveness; however, it has a great amount of support among the community and will likely not be overturned.

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Regions of Missouri
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