Albanian or Gjuha shqipe is a language spoken by more than six million inhabitants of the western Balkan peninsula (Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece) in south-eastern Europe (Albanians) and by a small number of people in Calabria and Sicily, southern Italy.
|Albanian (Gjuha shqipe)|
|Spoken in:||Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Italy, and other countries|
|Total speakers:||6,169,000 (Ethnologue, 2000)|
|Ranking:||Not in top 100|
|Official language of:||Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia|
|SIL||ALS, ALN, AAE, AAT|
|See also: Language – List of languages|
Table of contents
The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari  or missal, was written by Gjon Buzuku, a Catholic cleric, in 1555. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë.
Albanian was proved to be an Indo-European language in the 1850s. The Albanian language is on its own branch of the Indo-European language family. Some suggest that Albanian may be the survival of an Illyrian language once spoken in the southwestern Balkans. Others suggest Albanian may be related more to the ancient Dacian language once spoken in Moesia and Dacia. It is unclear whether Dacian and Illyrian were on different branches of the Indo-European family, but most scholars consider that they were.
Albanian is divided into four dialects, grouped into two dialect groups as follows:
- Gheg Albanian
- Tosk group
- Arbëreshë Albanian
- Arvanatika Albanian
- Tosk Albanian
Some eminent scholars in the field of Albanian language have been Johann Georg von Hahn, Franz Bopp, Gustav Meyer, Norbert Jokl, Eqrem Çabej, Stuart Edward Mann, Carlo Tagliavini, Wacław Cimochowski, Eric Pratt Hamp, Agnija Desnickaja and Gjovalin Shkurtaj who is probably the most distinguished socio-linguist in Albania today. He is the head of the Department of Linguistics at Tirana University.
There are two principal dialects of limited mutual intelligibility: Tosk and Gheg. The geographical border of the two dialects has traditionally been the Shkumbini River in Albania, with Gheg being spoken north of the river, and Tosk south of the river. The two dialects have phonological as well as lexicological differences.
Tosk is spoken in southern and central Albania, by the Arbëreshë of Italy, among the Albanian minority of Greece: the Çam and the Arvanites, and in small communities of Albanian immigrants in Ukraine, Turkey, Egypt, and United States.
Gheg (or Geg) is spoken in northern Albania and by the Albanians of Serbia and Montenegro (Southern Montenegro and Southern Serbia), the UN protectorate of Kosovo, as well as those of the Republic of Macedonia.
Since after World War II there have been efforts to standardize on one dialect called Standard or Literary Albanian that borrows most heavily from the Tosk dialect (at the behest of the Dictator Enver Hoxha, himself a Tosk speaker). Two books that were published in the 1970s, Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe and Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe, contained prescribed orthographical rules and dictionary definitions respectively.
Albanian has seven vowels: /i ɛ a ə ɔ y u/ and 29 phonemic consonants.
|Phoneme||Written as...||Pronunciation as in...|
|/ə/||ë||English alone (schwa)|
The following is a table of the Albanian phonemic consonants. Orthography and pronunciation are shown later.
|Stop||p b||t d||c ɟ||k g|
|Affricate||ts dz||tʃ dʒ|
|Fricative||θ ð||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||h|
|Phoneme||Written as...||Pronunciation as in...|
|/c/||q||similar to English hot year|
|/ɟ/||gj||similar to English did you|
|/ts/||c||similar to English hats, Japanese tsuki|
|/dz/||x||similar to English goods|
|/tʃ/||ç (1)||English chat|
|/ʒ/||zh||English vision, French jour|
|/ɲ/||nj||similar to English canyon, Spanish ñ|
|/j/||j||English yes, German j|
|/lˠ/||ll||English mill ("dark L")|
|/r/||rr||Spanish rosa, hierro (trilled)|
|/ɾ/||r||Spanish aro, Japanese hara (flapped)|
- The affricates are pronounced as one sound (a stop and a fricative at the same point).
- The palatal stops q and gj are completely unknown to English, so the pronunciation guide is approximate. Among major languages, palatal stops can be found, for example, in Hungarian (where these sounds are spelt ty and gy respectively) or Mandarin Chinese (q and j).
- The palatal nasal nj corresponds to the sound of the Spanish ñ or the French or Italian digraph gn (as in gnocchi). It is pronounced as one sound, not a nasal plus a glide.
- The ll sound is a velarized lateral, close to English "dark L".
- The contrast between flapped r and trilled rr is the same as in Spanish. English does not have any of the two sounds phonemically (but tt in butter is often pronounced as a flap r in rapid speech).
- (1) The letter ç can be spelt ch on American English keyboards, both due to its English sound, but more importantly, due to analogy with Albanian xh, sh, zh. (Usually, however, it's spelt simply c, which may cause confusion; however, meanings are usually understood).
Albanian split from the Proto-Indo-European language about 4000 years ago and most of the basic words are derived directly from it. Some of these words have cognates in Romanian and there is a theory that the language spoken by the Dacians before the Romanization was a language related to proto-Albanian.
It is not certain whether ancient Greek influenced the early Albanian language. With the expansion of the Roman Empire, Latin, more specifically, the Balkan Latin (which was the ancestor of Romanian), would exert a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend).
After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, another source of Albanian vocabulary were the Slavic languages, especially Bulgarian. Like for all Balkan languages, the rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words.
The Albanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, with the addition of the letters ë, ç, and nine digraphs to account for certain sounds in pronunciations. Until 1908, when the Latin alphabet was introduced in Albanian, the Greek alphabet, Cyrillic alphabet, and the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic alphabet had been used to write Albanian.
|hello||tungjatjeta||/tun gʲat jɛ ta/||(tUhn-ngIAt-IEta)||listen|
|good-bye||mirupafshim||/mi ru paf ʃim/||(mEEr-Uh-pA-fshEEm)||listen|
|please||ju lutem||/ju lu tɛm/||(iU LU-tehm)||listen|
|thank you||faleminderit||/fa ɫɛ min dɛ rit/||(fAh-leh-mEE-nde-rEEt)||listen|
|that one||atë||/a tə/||(ATEH)||listen|
|how much?||sa është?||/sa əʃ tə/||(sAh ush-te)||listen|
|sorry||më fal||/mə fal/||(mUh FAL)||listen|
|I don't understand||nuk kuptoj||/nuk kup toj/||(nUhk KUP-toi)||listen|
|where's the bathroom?||ku është banjoja?||/ku əʃ tə ba ɲo ja/||(kuh ush-tEh bA-nio-jA)||listen|
|generic toast||gëzuar||/gə zu ar/||(gUh-zuh-ar)||listen|
|Do you speak English?||flisni Anglisht?||/flis ni an gliʃt/||(flee-snEE ahn-GLEE-sht)||listen|
- Albanian proverbs
- Common phrases
- Language families and languages
- Numbers in various languages
- A somewhat interesting propaganda site
- English – Albanian Dictionary
- Albanian – English Dictionary: from Webster's Online Dictionary – the Rosetta Edition.
- An overview of the Albanian language
- Albanian phrase guide
- Ethnologue.com article on Albanian
- List of free online resources for learners
- List of online Albanian-related resources
- Albanian World Learn Albanian here
Sample of 3 different type of Albanian Language: