Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. Their crimes are committed as a result of a compulsion that, in many but not all cases, has roots in the killer's (often dysfunctional) youth, as opposed to those who are motivated by financial gain (e.g. contract killers) or ideological/political motivations (e.g. terrorists). Many times, this compulsion is linked to the individual's sexual drive.
Defining serial murder
The term "serial killer" was coined by either FBI agent Robert Ressler or by Dr. Robert Keppel (the credit for the term is still disputed) in the 1970s so that criminologists could distinguish those who claim victims over a long period of time from those who claim multiple victims at once (mass murderers). A third type of multiple killer is a spree killer.
The following are brief definitions of these three types:
- A serial killer is someone who commits three or more murders over an extended period of time with cooling-off periods in between. In between their crimes, they appear to be quite normal, a state which Hervey Checkley and Robert Hare call the "mask of sanity." There is frequently—but not always—a sexual element to the murders.
- A mass murderer, on the other hand, is an individual who kills three or more people in a single event and in one location. The perpetrators sometimes commit suicide, meaning knowledge of their state of mind and what triggers their actions is often left to more speculation than fact. Mass murderers who are caught sometimes claim they cannot clearly remember the event.
- A spree killer commits multiple-murders in different locations over a period of time that may vary from a few hours to several days. Unlike serial killers, however, they do not revert to their normal behaviour in between slayings.
All of the above types of crimes are often carried out by solitary individuals. There have been examples in all three categories whereby two or more perpetrators have acted together. Author Michael Newton states that this happens in about a third of the cases. Lee Boyd Malvo and John Muhammad are prime examples.
Serial killers are specifically motivated by a variety of psychological urges, primarily power and sexual compulsion. They feel inadequate and worthless, often owing to humiliation and abuse in childhood or the pressures of poverty and low socio-economic status in adulthood, and their crimes give them a feeling of power, both at the time of the actual killing and also afterwards. The knowledge that their actions terrify entire communities and often baffle police forces adds to this sense of power. This motivational aspect separates them from contract killers and other multiple murderers who are motivated by profit. For example, in Scotland during the 1820s, William Burke and William Hare murdered people in what became known as the "Case of the Body Snatchers." They would not count as serial killers by most criminologists' definitions, however, because their motive was financial. Of course, people do things for multiple motivations.
In many cases, a serial killer will plead not guilty by reason of insanity in a court of law. This defense is almost uniformly unsuccessful. The legal definition of insanity is based on whether the defendant knows the difference between right and wrong; the level of premeditation and the lack of any obvious delusions or hallucinations necessary to successfully commit multiple murders without getting caught make this defense extremely difficult.
The United States Bureau of Justice Statistics defines a serial killing as: "[involving] the killing of several victims in three or more separate events." This definition is especially close to that of a spree killer, and perhaps the primary difference between the two is that a serial killer has a cooling off period. They will commit a murder and, temporarily, feel sated until they feel their homicidal urges resurface. The time period between murders can vary between a few days to several years and will often decrease the longer the offender goes unapprehended. For example, Jeffrey Dahmer murdered his second victim nine years after his first, but his last eight victims were murdered in a space of just seven months. Spree killers, on the other hand, do not have a cooling off period and are in a state of constant hunting until they are caught or killed, even though their murder spree may sometimes extend to a period of several months.
Serial killers frequently have extreme sadistic urges. Ones who lack the ability to empathize with the suffering of others are frequently called psychopathic or sociopathic, terms which have been renamed among professional psychologists as antisocial personality disorder. Some serial killers engage in lust and torture murder, loosely defined terms involving, respectively, mutilation for sexual pleasure and killing them slowly over a prolonged period of time.
Psychology and development
Most serial killers have dysfunctional backgrounds. Frequently they are physically, sexually or psychologically abused as children. There can be a close correlation between their childhood abuse and crimes. For example, John Wayne Gacy was often beaten by his father and derided as a "sissy" and accused of being homosexual (which he was); in adulthood, Gacy would rape and torture boys and denounce them as being "faggots" and "sissies". Carroll Cole, on the other hand, was abused by his mother, who would engage in extra-marital affairs and force Cole to watch, beating him in order to ensure he did not tell his father. In adulthood, Cole murdered any "loose" woman who reminded him of his mother, in particular married women who were looking for sex behind their husband's back. Some serial killers are seemingly not subjected to any abuse in childhood, although they may have been illegitimate or put up for adoption, or just passed around from relative to relative, creating feelings of being unwanted and rootless. It is often impossible to know exactly what happened in any individual's childhood, so some killers may deny having been abused while others may falsely claim they were abused in an attempt to gain sympathy or tell psychologists what they want to hear.
The element of fantasy in serial killer's development cannot be over-emphasised. They often begin fantasising about murder during—or even before—adolescence. Their fantasy lives are very rich and they daydream compulsively about dominating and killing people, usually with very specific elements to the murderous fantasy that will eventually be apparent in their real crimes. Some killers are influenced by reading about the Holocaust and fantasize about being in charge of concentration camps. In such cases, however, it is generally not the political ideology of Nazism that they enjoy or are inspired by, but simply an attraction to the brutality and sadism of its application. Others enjoy reading the works of Marquis de Sade, who lends his name to the word "sadism" due to his stories, which were packed with rape, torture and murder. Many use pornography, frequently the violent type involving bondage, although they may also read "detective magazines" that feature stories of real life homicide cases. Others may even be fascinated and aroused by less obviously disagreeable material. Dahmer, for example, was fascinated by the character of Emperor Palpatine in Return of the Jedi, and even bought yellow contact lenses to make himself resemble the evil character, while several killers say their fantasies have been influenced by The Bible, in particular the Book of Revelation.
Some serial killers display one or more of what are known as the "MacDonald Triad" of warning signs in childhood. These are:
- Firestarting, invariably just for the thrill of destroying things.
- Cruelty to Animals. Most children can be cruel to animals, such as pulling the legs off of spiders, but future serial killers often kill larger animals, like dogs and cats, and frequently for their solitary enjoyment rather than to impress peers.
- Bedwetting beyond the age when children normally grow out of such behaviour.
It should be noted that, recently this Triad, developed in 1963, has been called into question by researchers. They note that many children and teenagers set fires or harm animals for many reasons (boredom, imitation of adult punishment of household pets, exploration of a "tough guy" identity, or even feelings of frustration). It is thus difficult to know whether these variables are in fact relevant to serial murder etiology and, if so, how precisely they matter.
Most serial killers claim their first victim when they are in their twenties, although this can vary, with one killer claiming the first of his victims when he was 38, and another who was just 15 when he admitted to murdering four people during the previous two years. On average, serial killers start murdering people when they are in their early-to-mid-twenties.
It has been claimed by many experts that once serial killers start that they cannot (or only rarely) stop. Recently this view has been called into question as new serial killers are caught through methods that were previously unavailable, like DNA testing. Some argue that those who are unable to control their homicidal impulses are more easily caught and thus overrepresented in the statistics.
The rate at which they claim victims can also vary a great deal. Juan Corona murdered 25 people in just six weeks, whilst Fred West and his wife Rosemary claimed 12 victims over a period of twenty years.
There have been conflicting reports as to the extent of serial murder. The FBI claimed in the 1980s that at any particular time there were roughly thirty-five active serial killers in the United States, meaning that the serial killers in question have committed their first murders but have not yet been apprehended or stopped by other means (e.g. suicide or a natural death.)
This figure has often been exaggerated. In his 1990 book, Serial Killers: The Growing Menace, Joel Norris claimed that there were five-hundred serial killers active at any one time in the United States, claiming five-thousand victims a year, which would be approximately a quarter of known homicides in the country. These statistics are regarded as suspect and unsupported by evidence. Some have argued that those who study or write about serial killers, be they employed in the judicial profession or journalists, have a vested interest in exaggerating the threat of such offenders.
In terms of reported cases, there appear to be far more serial killers active in developed Western nations than elsewhere. There are several reasons that may contribute to this:
- Detection techniques in developed nations are better. Multiple victims of one offender are quickly identified as being linked, so the apprehension of the offender comes quicker than in a nation where the police are generally more underfunded and have fewer resources.
- Developed nations have a highly competitive news media, so cases are reported more quickly.
- The United States and Western Europe have avoided the large scale, state-sanctioned censorship that news outlets in certain nations have, in which stories related to serial murder have been suppressed. An example of this is the case in Ukraine of serial murderer Andrei Chikatilo, whose activities continued largely unreported and poorly investigated by police in the former Soviet Union due to the idea that only supposedly corrupt capitalistic Western countries bred such killers. After the collapse of the USSR, there were a number of reports of prolific serial killers whose crimes had previously been hidden from the West behind the Iron Curtain.
Serial murder before 1900
Although the phenomenon of serial murder is generally regarded as a modern one, it can be traced back in history, albeit with a limited degree of accuracy.
In the 15th century, one of the wealthiest men in France, Gille de Rais, is said to have abducted, raped and murdered at least a hundred young boys. The Hungarian aristocrat Elizabeth Báthory was arrested in 1610 and subsequently charged with torturing and butchering as many as 600 young girls. Although both De Rais and Báthory were reportedly sadistic and addicted to murder, they differ from typical modern day serial killers in that they were both rich and powerful. Based upon the lack of established police forces and active news media during those centuries, it may very well be that there were plenty of other serial killers at that time who were either not identified or not publicized as well. Between 1790 and 1830 Thug Behram is believed to have individually killed 931 people by strangulation. He committed these killings as a member of the Thuggee cult, to which around 2,000,000 deaths in India are attributed. The cult's activities prompted a campaign against them by the British authorities in India. Behram is considered to be the most prolific serial killer in history, yet this could be questioned depending on the precise definition of serial killer, a definition which takes into account not simply numbers killed, but the manner in which they were killed and the killer's motive (see below).
Some historical criminologists have suggested that there may have been serial murders throughout history, but specific cases were not adequately recorded. It may even be the case that mythological beasts such as werewolves and vampires were inspired by medieval serial killers. After all, a werewolf is said to be a normal person who is occasionally overtaken by an animalistic urge to kill people savagely, and such a myth may have made an adequate explanation for cases of serial murder when the concept of psychology was several centuries away from being defined and studied. The idea of historical serial killers motivating the concept of such myths, however, is little more than speculation, although perhaps significantly there are a number of killers who were obsessed with blood and often even drank that of their victims.
In his famous 1886 book, Psychopathia Sexualis, Richard von Krafft-Ebing notes a case of serial murder in the 1870s, that of an Italian man named Eusebius Pieydagnelle who had a sexual obsession with blood and confessed to murdering six people. The unidentified Jack the Ripper killer slaughtered prostitutes in London in 1888. Those crimes gained enormous press attention at the time because, although there were plenty of murders in Victorian Britain motivated by robbery and theft, it was almost unheard of for someone to kill people simply for pleasure. London was also the center of the world's greatest superpower at the time, so having such dramatic murders of financially destitute women in the midst of such wealth focused the news media's attention on the plight of the urban poor and gained coverage worldwide. Joseph Vacher was executed in France in 1898 after confessing to killing and mutilating 11 women and children, while American serial killer Herman Mudgett was hanged in Philadelphia in 1896 after confessing to 28 murders.
Types of serial killer
Organized and disorganized types
The FBI has roughly categorized serial killers into two different types, organized and disorganized.
- Organized types are usually of high intelligence and plan their crimes quite methodically, usually abducting victims, killing them in one place and disposing of them in another. They will often lure the victims with ploys appealing to their sense of sympathy. For example, Ted Bundy would put his arm in a fake plaster-cast and ask women to help him carry books to his car, where he would beat them unconscious with the cast and spirit them away. Others specifically target prostitutes, who are likely to voluntarily go with a serial killer posing as a customer. They maintain a high degree of control over the crime scene, and usually have a good knowledge of forensic science that enables them to cover their tracks, such as by burying the body or weighting it down and sinking it in a river. They follow their crimes in the media carefully and often take pride in their actions, as if it were a grand project. The organized killer is usually socially adequate and has friends and lovers, often even a spouse and children. They are the type who, when captured, are most likely to be described by acquaintances as "a really nice guy" who "wouldn't hurt a fly". Some serial killers go to lengths to make their crimes difficult to discover, such as falsifying suicide notes, setting up others to take the blame for their crimes, and faking gang warfare.
- Disorganized types are often of low intelligence and commit their crimes impulsively. Whereas the organized killer will specifically set out to hunt a victim, the disorganized will murder someone whenever the opportunity arises, rarely bothering to dispose of the body but instead just leaving it at the same place in which they found the victim. They usually carry out "blitz" attacks, leaping out and attacking their victims without warning, and will typically perform whatever rituals they feel compelled to carry out (e.g. necrophilia, mutilation, etc.) once the victim is dead. They rarely bother to cover their tracks but may still evade capture for some time because of a level of cunning that compels them to keep on the move. They are often socially inadequate with few friends, and they may have a history of mental problems and be regarded by acquaintances as eccentric or even "a bit creepy". They have little insight into their crimes and may even block out the memories of the killings.
A significant number of serial killers show certain aspects of both organized and disorganized types, although usually the characteristics of one type will dominate. Some killers descend from being organized into disorganized behavior as their killings continue. They will carry out careful and methodical murders at the start but, as their compulsion grows out of control and utterly dominates their lives, they will become careless and impulsive.
The organized and disorganized model relates to the killer's methods. With regards to motives, they can be placed into five different categories:
Contrary to popular opinion, serial killers are rarely insane or motivated by hallucinations and/or voices in their head. Many claim to be, usually as a way of trying to get acquitted by reason of insanity. There are, however, a few genuine cases of serial killers who were compelled by such delusions, such as Herbert Mullin, who slaughtered 13 people after voices told him that murder was necessary to prevent California from suffering an earthquake (Mullin went to great pains to point out that California did indeed avoid an earthquake during his murder spree.)
These serial killers believe that their acts are justified on the basis that they are getting rid of a certain type of people (often prostitutes or members of a certain ethnic group). They believe that they are doing society a favor. Robert Pickton of Port Coquitlam, British Columbia, is accused of being this type of killer. He is currently charged with the murders of at least a dozen and possibly more than 50 prostitutes from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside. It is not necessarily a type of person that society generally finds unpleasant, however, as the serial killer may have a delusion that society doesn't want a certain type of person, when in fact they really do.
This type kills for the sheer pleasure of it, although what aspect they enjoy varies. Some may enjoy the actual "chase" of hunting down a victim more than anything, whilst others may be primarily motivated by the act of torturing and abusing the victim whilst they are alive. Yet others may kill the victim quickly, almost as if it were a chore, and then indulge in necrophilia or cannibalism with the body. Usually there is a strong sexual aspect to the crimes, even if it may not be immediately obvious, but some killers obtain a surge of excitement that is not necessarily sexual, such as David Berkowitz, who got a thrill out of shooting young couples in cars at random and then running away without ever physically touching the victims.
Most criminals who commit multiple murders for material ends (such as mob hit men) are not classed as serial killers because they are motivated by greed, rather than psychopathological compulsion. There is a fine line separating such killers, however. For example, Marcel Petiot, who operated in Nazi-occupied France, would classify as a serial killer. He posed as a member of the French Resistance and lured wealthy Jewish people to his home, claiming he could smuggle them out of the country. Instead he murdered them and stole their belongings, killing 63 people before he was finally caught. Although Petiot's primary motivation was materialistic, few could deny that a man willing to slaughter so many people simply to acquire a few dozen suitcases of clothes and jewellery was a compulsive killer and psychopath.
This is the most common type of serial killer. Their main objective for killing is to gain and exert power over their victim. Such killers were usually abused as children which means they feel incredibly powerless and inadequate, and often they indulge in rituals that are linked, often very specifically, to forms of abuse they suffered themselves. One killer, for example, forced young girls to perform oral sex on him, after which he would spank the girl before finally strangling her. After capture, the killer claimed that when he was a child, his older sister would force him to perform oral sex on her, then spank him in order to terrify him into not telling their parents. The ritual he performed with his victims would negate the humiliation he felt from his abuse as a child, although such relief would only be temporary and, like other such killers, he would soon feel compelled to repeat his actions, until eventual capture. (The vast majority of child abuse victims do not become serial killers, of course, meaning that such abuse cannot be regarded as the sole trigger of such crimes in these cases.) Many Power/Control motivated killers sexually abuse their victims, but they differ from Hedonistic killers in that rape is not motivated by lust but as simply another form of dominating the victim.
Some serial killers may seem to have characteristics of more than one type. For example, British killer Peter Sutcliffe appeared to be both a Visionary and a Mission Oriented killer in that he claimed voices told him to clean up the streets of prostitutes.
Why are serial killers not caught more quickly?
It is probable that many would-be serial killers are apprehended before they kill the three or more victims required to qualify them as such in the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Similarly, it is certain that some are detained under mental health regulations and do not directly answer for their crimes. Others go on to kill many more people over years without being apprehended.Serial killers, despite the media attention, commit only a tiny fraction of all murders in any time period. Murder is usually either a crime of personal relationships and short intense emotion, or an unintended consequence of other crimes. Because of this, most murders are comparatively simple to solve; in most familial deaths, the murderer makes little effective effort to conceal the crime and confesses easily; in other cases, the murderer is usually a local or known to the police. These assumptions, with which any law enforcement officer naturally approaches a single murder, are barriers to catching a serial killer.
Another barrier to serial killers' early capture is their diverse backgrounds, choices of victim, and methods of killing. They almost never have any links to their victims—they pick by whim or impulse, seeking types or opportunity rather than any easily detectable link. As noted above, organized offenders can take steps to minimize the evidence they leave behind, and commit crimes away from their locale. It can take a number of murders before a serial killer is even suspected. Even if a serial killer is known to be operating, it is difficult to catch the culprit. Potential victims can be identified only by broad type, and generic area warnings produce little more than fear and misdirected violence.
The commonality of habitual traits of serial killers allows the construction of a psychological profile. This allows targeted interviewing of suspects, although there are often a large number of entirely innocent individuals who have some match to the profile. Also, some serial killers are skilled at concealing their true selves behind a charming facade.
Unfortunately, profiles are built upon historical precedents of known serial killers which sometimes do not accurately model actual culprits. Such problems plagued the hunt for the D.C. sniper, John Muhammad and John Lee Malvo, whose initial profile indicated a Caucasian male. A different problem plagued the hunt for Aileen Wuornos in Florida's "Highway Killer" case; police initially believed the killer to be male. Regrettably serial killer investigations sometimes reveal an unsatisfactory side to law enforcement agencies—inertia, incompetence, bureaucracy, mismanagement, agency "turf wars", missed opportunities, racial or gender bias, and other failures can slow down the investigation and, indirectly, allow further murders. <p> Whilst there is a public misconception that serial killers generally want to be discovered, in most cases this is not the case, as serial killers will often go to great lengths to prevent capture or to push police and investigators towards the wrong subjects. There are a number of examples where what police originally believed to be copy cat murders turned out to actually be the same person doing all of the crimes, such as Ivan Milat's back packer murders. The opposite is also often true.
Serial killers in popular culture
Because of the horrific nature of their crimes, their highly varied personalities and profiles, and their terrifying ability to evade detection and kill many victims before finally being captured and imprisoned, serial killers have quickly become something of a cult favorite. The public's fascination with serial killers led to some successful crime novels and films about fictional serial killers, including: Helen Zahavi's novel Dirty Weekend; Bret Easton Ellis' American Psycho; and especially Thomas Harris' The Silence of the Lambs and its Academy Award-winning movie adaptation, whose main antagonist, the brilliant, cannibalistic serial killer Hannibal Lecter, is a cultural icon.
- Edward W. Mitchell. The Aetiology of Serial Murder: Towards an Integrated Model, M.Phil. thesis, 1996/97, University of Cambridge, UK
- Serial Killer Encyclopedia
- Serial Killer 'Hit List' at Mayhem.net
- Crime Library's Serial Killer page
- MacDonald, J. M. (1963). The threat to kill. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, pp. 125–130.
- John Douglas and Mark Olshaker; Mind Hunter: Inside the FBI's Elite Serial Crime Unit; Pocket Books; ISBN 0671013750; 1997
- Joel Norris; Serial Killers: The Growing Menace; 1990, Arrow Books; ISBN 0099717506
- John Douglas and Mark Olshaker; Journey into Darkness, Pocket Books; ISBN 0671003941; 1997
- Robert K. Ressler and Thomas Schachtman; Whoever Fights Monsters; St Martins Mass Market Paper; ISBN 0312950446; 1994
- Harold Schechter and David Everitt; The A to Z Encyloperia of Serial Killers; 1996; Pocket Books; ISBN 0671537911
- Brian Lane and Wilfred Gregg; The New Encyclopedia Of Serial Killers; Headline Book Publishing; ISBN 0747253617; 1996
- Colin Wilson: A Plague Of Murder; Robinson Publishing Ltd; ISBN 1854872494; 1995