Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) or septicemia is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. The more critical subsets of sepsis include severe sepsis (sepsis with acute organ dysfunction) and septic shock (sepsis with refractory arterial hypotension). The term septicemia is usually reserved for sepsis with bacteremia, i.e. the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.
The systemic inflammatory response syndrome leads to widespread activation of inflammation and coagulation pathways. This may progress to dysfunction of the circulatory system and, even under optimal treatment, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually death.
Sepsis is more common and also more dangerous in elderly, immunocompromised, and critically ill patients. It occurs in 2% of all hospitalizations and accounts for as much as 25% of intensive care unit (ICU) bed utilization. It is a major cause of death in intensive care units worldwide, with mortality rates that range from 20% for sepsis to 40% for severe sepsis to >60% for septic shock. In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients, and the tenth most common cause of death overall according to 2000 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Martin et al, 2003).
A problem in the adequate management of septic patients has been the delay in administering the right treatment after sepsis has been recognized. A large international collaboration was established to educate people about sepsis and to improve patient outcomes with sepsis, entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign." The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis (Dellinger et al 2004), with the aim to publish a complete set of guidelines within 2 years.
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The therapy of sepsis rests on antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, fluid replacement and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in pulmonary dysfunction, transfusion of blood plasma, platelets and coagulation factors to stabilize blood coagulation, and drug and fluid therapy for circulatory failure. Ensuring adequate nutrition, if necessary by parenteral nutrition, is important during prolonged illness.
Most therapies aimed at the inflammatory process itself have failed to improve outcome. However, drotrecogin (activated protein C, one of the coagulation factors) has been shown to decrease mortality from about 31% to about 25% in severe sepsis (Bernard et al 2001). Low dose cortisol treatment has shown promise for septic shock patients with relative adrenal insufficiency.
- infection is an inflammatory response to a microorganism, or the invasion of normally sterile host tissues by the organism.
- bacteraemia is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Bacteraemia can occur in sepsis and other serious diseases such as infective endocarditis, but it may also be a harmless and transient condition.
- diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC)
- multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
- Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, Lopez-Rodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ Jr; Recombinant human protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study group. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2001;344:699–709. PMID 11236773
- Dellinger RP, Carlet JM, Masur H, Gerlach H, Calandra T, Cohen J, Gea-Banacloche J, Keh D, Marshall JC, Parker MM, Ramsay G, Zimmerman JL, Vincent JL, Levy MM; Surviving Sepsis Campaign Management Guidelines Committee. Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2004;32:858–73. PMID 15090974.
- Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss M. The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1546–54. PMID 12700374