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Poznan

  • The Poznan is also a breed of horse.

Poznań (in Polish pronounced: ; ['pɔznaɲ]; full official name:The Capital City of Poznań, Latin: Posnania, German: Posen, Yiddish: פּױזן "Poyzn") is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,000 inhabitants (1999). Located by the Warta River, it is one of the oldest Polish cities, an important historical center and the capital of Greater Poland, the cradle of the Polish state, and Poland's capital in the mid-tenth century during the early Piast dynasty. Poznań's impressive cathedral is the earliest church in the country, containing the tombs of the first Polish rulers: duke Mieszko I, king Boleslaus the Brave, king Mieszko II, duke Casimir I the Restorer, duke Przemysł I and king Przemysł II.

Today the city is a vibrant center for trade, industry, and education. Poznań is Poland's 5th largest city and 4th biggest industrial center. It is also the administrative capital of the Greater Poland Voivodship.

Poznań
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: none
Voivodship Greater Poland
Municipal government Rada miasta Poznania
Mayor Ryszard Grobelny
Area 261,3 km²
Population
 - city
 - urban
 - density

578 900 (2002)

2215/km²
Founded
City rights
8th century
1253
Latitude
Longitude
52°17'34'' N – 52°30'27'' N
16°44'08'' E – 17°04'28'' E
Area code +48 61
Car plates PO
Twin towns Assen, Brno, Hannover, Jyväskylä, Kharkiv, Nablus, Nottinghamshire, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Rennes, Shenzhen, Toledo
Municipal Website


Table of contents

Geography

Location


city area 261,3 km² (2002)
geographical location:
52°17'34''N – 52°30'27''N
16°44'08''E – 17°04'28''E
highest point: Mt. Morasko 157 m asl
lowest point: Warta river valley: 60 m asl

Name of the city

Without the special characters, the name is sometimes also spelled Poznan in English, it is also referred to, in Polish language, as Stołeczne Miasto Poznań (name used on special occasions), German Posen (Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918), Latin: Posnania, civitas Posnaniensis.

Earliest surviving reference to the city were by Thietmar in his chronicles: episcopus Poznaniensis ("Bishop of Poznań", 970) and ab urbe Poznani ("by" or "from the city Poznań", 1005).

Early spellings include: Posna and Posnan.

The name probably comes from a personal name Poznan and means the Poznan's town. It is also possible the name comes directly from the verb poznać which means "to know, to recognize".

Administrative division

Local government districts of Poznan

The Poznań metropolitan area, consisting of the autonomous towns of Poznań, Ostrów, Ostrówek, Środka, Chwaliszewo, Łacina, was integrated into one city in 1793–1800. The rapidly growing city annexed the neighboring villages of Grunwald, Łazarz, Górczyn, Jeżyce, Wilda, Winogrady in 1900, and Piątkowo and Rataje in later years. Today, Poznań is divided into five districts, which are further divided onto several dozens of neighborhoods. The districts are:

Culture

The annual Malta Theater festival is probably the most characteristic cultural event of the city. Henryk Wieniawski Violin Festival is held every 5 years. Annual classical music festival is held in the city, on which the Basel Boys Choir took part several times.


History

Main article: History of Poznań, see also: History of Poland

Goats on the town hall

Poznań has played many roles in the history of Poland. It is one of Poland's oldest cities and a significant historical center. It was the capital of Greater Poland, the cradle of the Polish state, and Poland's capital in the mid-tenth century during the early Piast dynasty. Poznań's impressive cathedral is the oldest church in the country, containing the tombs of the first Polish rulers, Duke Mieszko I and King Boleslaus the Brave. Poznań was the capital city of the Greater Poland region and one of the biggest Polish cities. Lubrański Academy, the second Polish university (not a "full" university, in fact, as science students had to go to Cracow) was established in 1519.

Poznań was the capital of the Greater Poland area when it came under control of Prussia in 1793, its administrative area renamed to South Prussia. The area was liberated by the armies of Napoleon and by local Polish resistance fighters, and was part of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815. Poznań was capital of the Poznań department. Following the defeat of Napoleon, Greater Poland was again under Prussian jurisdiction, as the capital of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań. From the time of the Revolutions in the mid 1800s, it was an official Prussian province (see Province of Posen), as well as a part of the German Empire after the unification of German states in 1871 (but it was outside of German Confederation).

As an effect of the Great Poland Uprising (1918-1919), the area was restored to Poland and made the capital of Poznań Voivodship. During World War II Poznań suffered the Nazi occupation and repressions. After the war the city has been capital of the surrounding area through administrative district boundary changes in 1957, 1975 and 1999, currently administrating Greater Poland Voivodship, one of 16 provinces in the country.

Historical population

Mediaeval seal of Poznań (1344)

Detailed demographic tables: Historical population of Poznan

Historical population summary:

  • 1600 : about 20,000 inhabitants
  • 1732 : 4000 inhabitants
  • 1793 : 15,000 inhabitants before
  • 1918 : 156,091 inhabitants (from government data)
  • 1939 : 274,155 inhabitants
  • 1946 : 268,000 inhabitants
  • 2000 : 572,900 inhabitants
  • May 2002: 578,900 inhabitants

2020 population Forecast:

  • Poznań City 584,500 (small increase)
  • Poznań County 305,500 (significant increase)
  • Poznań Metro Area 890,000

Famous people

(in alphabetical order)

Education

Main article: Education in Poznań

Poznań is home to few state-owned universities and a number of smaller, mostly private-run colleges and institutions of higher education. Adam Mickiewicz University (abbreviated UAM) is one of the most influential and biggest universities in Poland.

Scientific and regional organizations

Economy

Poznań has been an important center of trade since the Middle Ages. Starting in the 19th century, local heavy industry began to grow. Several major factories were built, including the steel mill and railway factory of Hipolit Cegielski.

Today Poznań is one of the major centers of trade with Germany. Many Western-European companies started their Polish branches in Poznań, or in the nearby localities of Tarnowo Podgórne and Swarzędz.

For a list of major Poznań-based corporations see Major corporations in Poznań

Sports

Politics

Municipal politics

Since 1989 (the end of the communist era), Poznań municipality and metro area have invested heavily in infrastructure, especially transportation and improved public administration. This has effected in a massive investment from foreign companies in Poznań itself, as well as in communities west and south of Poznań (namely, Kornik and Tarnowo Podgorne).

Most foreign investors are German and Dutch companies (see "Major corporations" above), with a few others. Investors are mostly from the food processing, furniture, automotive and transport & logistics industries. Foreign companies are primarily attracted by low labour costs, but also by the relatively good road and railway networks in the vicinity, good vocational skills of workers (heritage of the communist era) and relatively liberal employment laws. As compared with Germany, there are far fewer restrictions, e.g. on shop opening hours.

Worth noticing is also the positive attitude of public administration towards investments, and less annoying "red tape" than elsewhere in Poland.

Investment into transportation was mostly in the public transport area. While number of cars grew at least twice since 1989, the policy of improving public transport gave good effects. Limiting car access to the city center, building new tram lines (inc. Poznanski Szybki Tramwaj) and investing in new rolling stock (such as modern Combino trams by Siemens and Solaris low-floor buses) actually increased ridership. This is a notable success, even considering that Polish society possesses about half of "old EU" purchasing power and thus not everybody can own a car.

Future investments into transportation include the construction of a "third ring road" around the city, and the completion of A2 (E30) highway towards Berlin. In the public transport area (and non-car transportation), further investment must be made into the development bicycle paths (and the linking of presently existing ones), and an attempt is presently made of developing Karlsruhe-style light rail system for commuters. All that is made more complicated (and more expensive) by the heavy neglect of transportation throughout communist era.

Poznań constituency

Members of Sejm elected from Poznań constituency

Members of European Parliament elected from Poznań constituency

Bibliography

  • collective work, Poznań. Dzieje, ludzie kultura, Poznań 1953
  • K. Malinowski (red.), Dziesięć wieków Poznania, t.1, Dzieje społeczno-gospodarcze, Poznań 1956
  • collective work, Poznań, Poznań 1958
  • collective work, Poznań. Zarys historii, Poznań 1963
  • Cz. Łuczak, Życie społeczno-gospodarcze w Poznaniu 1815–1918, Poznań 1965
  • J. Topolski (red.), Poznań. Zarys dziejów, Poznań 1973
  • Zygmunt Boras, Książęta Piastowscy Wielkopolski, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1983
  • Jerzy Topolskiego (red.), Dzieje Poznania,Wydawnictwo PWN, Warszawa – Poznań 1988
  • Alfred Kaniecki, Dzieje miasta wodą pisane, Wydawnictwo Aquarius, Poznań 1993
  • Witold Maisel (red.), Przywileje miasta Poznania XIII-XVIII wieku. Privilegia civitatis Posnaniensis saeculorum XIII-XVIII. Władze Miasta Poznania, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, Wydawnictwa Żródłowe Komisji Historycznej, Tom XXIV, Wydawnictwo PTPN, Poznań 1994
  • Wojciech Stankowski, Wielkopolska, Wydawnictwo WSiP, Warszawa 1999


 
Poznań
Districts:
Stare Miasto | Nowe Miasto | Jeżyce | Grunwald | Wilda
Tourist attractions:
cathedral


 
Greater Poland
Historical administrative divisions
Duchy of Greater Poland (12th-13th centuries) • Poznań Voivodship and Kalisz Voivodship (until 1793) • South Prussia (until 1806) • Poznan Department, Kalisz Department and Bydgoszcz Department (until 1815) • Grand Duchy of Poznań (until 1846) • Province of Posen (until 1918) • Poznań Voivodship (until 1939) • Reichsgau Posen (1939) • Reichsgau Wartheland (until 1945) • Poznań Voivodship (until 1975) • Poznań Voivodship, Kalisz Voivodship, Leszno Voivodship, Konin Voivodship and Piła Voivodship (until 1998) • Greater Poland Voivodship
Greater Poland Uprisings
1794 • 1806 • 1846 • 1848 • 1918

See also:



External links:

Internet Directories

City Guides

Economy

Science and Education

Genealogy

Culture and History

Sports

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
Poznan


 
Poland
Voivodships of Poland
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Principal cities
Warsaw | Łódź | Kraków | Wrocław | Poznań | Gdańsk | Szczecin | Bydgoszcz | Lublin | Katowice | Białystok | Częstochowa | Gdynia | Toruń | Radom | Kielce | Rzeszów | Olsztyn







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