- The Poznan is also a breed of horse.
Poznań (in Polish pronounced: ; ['pɔznaɲ]; full official name:The Capital City of Poznań, Latin: Posnania, German: Posen, Yiddish: פּױזן "Poyzn") is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,000 inhabitants (1999). Located by the Warta River, it is one of the oldest Polish cities, an important historical center and the capital of Greater Poland, the cradle of the Polish state, and Poland's capital in the mid-tenth century during the early Piast dynasty. Poznań's impressive cathedral is the earliest church in the country, containing the tombs of the first Polish rulers: duke Mieszko I, king Boleslaus the Brave, king Mieszko II, duke Casimir I the Restorer, duke Przemysł I and king Przemysł II.
Today the city is a vibrant center for trade, industry, and education. Poznań is Poland's 5th largest city and 4th biggest industrial center. It is also the administrative capital of the Greater Poland Voivodship.
|Municipal government||Rada miasta Poznania|
578 900 (2002)
| 8th century|
| 52°17'34'' N – 52°30'27'' N|
16°44'08'' E – 17°04'28'' E
|Area code||+48 61|
|Twin towns||Assen, Brno, Hannover, Jyväskylä, Kharkiv, Nablus, Nottinghamshire, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Rennes, Shenzhen, Toledo|
Table of contents
city area 261,3 km² (2002)
52°17'34''N – 52°30'27''N
16°44'08''E – 17°04'28''E
highest point: Mt. Morasko 157 m asl
lowest point: Warta river valley: 60 m asl
Name of the city
Without the special characters, the name is sometimes also spelled Poznan in English, it is also referred to, in Polish language, as Stołeczne Miasto Poznań (name used on special occasions), German Posen (Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918), Latin: Posnania, civitas Posnaniensis.
Earliest surviving reference to the city were by Thietmar in his chronicles: episcopus Poznaniensis ("Bishop of Poznań", 970) and ab urbe Poznani ("by" or "from the city Poznań", 1005).
Early spellings include: Posna and Posnan.
The name probably comes from a personal name Poznan and means the Poznan's town. It is also possible the name comes directly from the verb poznać which means "to know, to recognize".
The Poznań metropolitan area, consisting of the autonomous towns of Poznań, Ostrów, Ostrówek, Środka, Chwaliszewo, Łacina, was integrated into one city in 1793–1800. The rapidly growing city annexed the neighboring villages of Grunwald, Łazarz, Górczyn, Jeżyce, Wilda, Winogrady in 1900, and Piątkowo and Rataje in later years. Today, Poznań is divided into five districts, which are further divided onto several dozens of neighborhoods. The districts are:
The annual Malta Theater festival is probably the most characteristic cultural event of the city. Henryk Wieniawski Violin Festival is held every 5 years. Annual classical music festival is held in the city, on which the Basel Boys Choir took part several times.
Poznań has played many roles in the history of Poland. It is one of Poland's oldest cities and a significant historical center. It was the capital of Greater Poland, the cradle of the Polish state, and Poland's capital in the mid-tenth century during the early Piast dynasty. Poznań's impressive cathedral is the oldest church in the country, containing the tombs of the first Polish rulers, Duke Mieszko I and King Boleslaus the Brave. Poznań was the capital city of the Greater Poland region and one of the biggest Polish cities. Lubrański Academy, the second Polish university (not a "full" university, in fact, as science students had to go to Cracow) was established in 1519.
Poznań was the capital of the Greater Poland area when it came under control of Prussia in 1793, its administrative area renamed to South Prussia. The area was liberated by the armies of Napoleon and by local Polish resistance fighters, and was part of the Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815. Poznań was capital of the Poznań department. Following the defeat of Napoleon, Greater Poland was again under Prussian jurisdiction, as the capital of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznań. From the time of the Revolutions in the mid 1800s, it was an official Prussian province (see Province of Posen), as well as a part of the German Empire after the unification of German states in 1871 (but it was outside of German Confederation).
As an effect of the Great Poland Uprising (1918-1919), the area was restored to Poland and made the capital of Poznań Voivodship. During World War II Poznań suffered the Nazi occupation and repressions. After the war the city has been capital of the surrounding area through administrative district boundary changes in 1957, 1975 and 1999, currently administrating Greater Poland Voivodship, one of 16 provinces in the country.
Detailed demographic tables: Historical population of Poznan
Historical population summary:
- 1600 : about 20,000 inhabitants
- 1732 : 4000 inhabitants
- 1793 : 15,000 inhabitants before
- 1918 : 156,091 inhabitants (from government data)
- 1939 : 274,155 inhabitants
- 1946 : 268,000 inhabitants
- 2000 : 572,900 inhabitants
- May 2002: 578,900 inhabitants
2020 population Forecast:
- Poznań City 584,500 (small increase)
- Poznań County 305,500 (significant increase)
- Poznań Metro Area 890,000
(in alphabetical order)
- Józef Brzeziński
- Hipolit Cegielski (1815-1868)
- Dezydery Chłapowski (1788-1848)
- August Cieszkowski (1814-1894)
- Antoni Czubiński, historian
- Franciszek Dobrowolski (1830-1896)
- Tytus Działyński (1796-1861)
- Malgorzata Dydek, basketball player
- Ewaryst Estkowski (1820-1856)
- Paul von Hindenburg
- Maksymilian Jackowski (1815-1905)
- Stefan Jurga professor and rector of Poznan University
- Krzysztof Komeda, Jazz musician
- Antoni Kraszewski (1797-1870)
- Antoni Krzyżanowski
- Gerard Labuda, (born 1916), historian
- Karol Libelt (1807-1875)
- Włodzimierz Łęcki, politician and writer
- Karol Marcinkowski (1800-1848)
- Władysław Markiewicz, historian
- Teofil Matecki (1810-1886)
- Maciej Mielzyński
- Małgorzata Musierowicz, popular author of books for children and youths
- Andrzej Niegolewski (1787-1857)
- Władysław Niegolewski (1814-1880)
- Władysław Oleszczyński (1809-1866)
- Kazimierz Piwarski, (1903–1968), historian
- Janusz Pałubicki, politician
- Gustaw Potworowski (1800-1860)
- Edward Raczyński (1786-1845)
- Cyryl Ratajski (1875-1942), president of Poznań 1922–34
- Antoni Radziwiłł
- Michał Sczaniecki, historian
- Mateusz Sibilski, conductor
- Walery Stefański (1815-1877)
- Józef Struś (1510 – 1568), scientist, mayor of Poznań
- Stefan Stuligrosz, conductor
- Roman Szymański (1840-1908)
- Lech Trzeciakowski, historian
- Teofil Walicki
- Zygmunt Wojciechowski, (1900-1955), historian, founder of Western Institute(Instutut Zachodni)
- Leon Wegner (1824-1877)
- Anna Wolff-Powęska, historian
- Tadeusz Zwiefka – popular TV journalist, former editor-in-chief of the Poznań regional TV center, and today a PO's Member of European Parliament.
- Maciej Żurawski – football player of Wisła Kraków & Poland
Main article: Education in Poznań
Poznań is home to few state-owned universities and a number of smaller, mostly private-run colleges and institutions of higher education. Adam Mickiewicz University (abbreviated UAM) is one of the most influential and biggest universities in Poland.
- Poznan University of Technology
- Poznan University of Medical Sciences
- Adam Mickiewicz University
- Agricultural University of Poznan
- Poznan University of Economics
- Poznan University School of Physical Education
- Academy of Fine Arts in Poznan
- Academy of Music in Poznan
Scientific and regional organizations
Poznań has been an important center of trade since the Middle Ages. Starting in the 19th century, local heavy industry began to grow. Several major factories were built, including the steel mill and railway factory of Hipolit Cegielski.
Today Poznań is one of the major centers of trade with Germany. Many Western-European companies started their Polish branches in Poznań, or in the nearby localities of Tarnowo Podgórne and Swarzędz.
For a list of major Poznań-based corporations see Major corporations in Poznań
- Lech Poznań – men's football team (Polish Champion: 1983, 1984, 1990, 1992 and 1993; Polish Cup winner 1982, 1984, 1988 and 2004; Polish SuperCup winner 1990, 1992, 2004)
- Warta Poznań – men's football team (3rd league in season 2003/2004).
- AZS Poznań – women's basketball team playing in Torell Basket Liga: 2nd place in 2003/2004 season (formerly also called Danter AZS Poznań and Stary Browar AZS Poznań)
- AZS AWF Poznań – women's volleyball team playing in Polish Seria A Women's Volleyball League: 8th place in 2003/2004 season.
- TPS Winogrady Poznań – men's football team
- Polonia Poznań – men's football team
- WKS Grunwald Poznań – sports club with sections in field hockey, shooting, wrestling, handball and tennis.
- KS Pocztowiec Poznań – men's field hockey team
- KTKFiT Błękitny Express Lech Poznań – men's field hockey team
- KS AZS AWF Poznań – men's field hockey team
Since 1989 (the end of the communist era), Poznań municipality and metro area have invested heavily in infrastructure, especially transportation and improved public administration. This has effected in a massive investment from foreign companies in Poznań itself, as well as in communities west and south of Poznań (namely, Kornik and Tarnowo Podgorne).
Most foreign investors are German and Dutch companies (see "Major corporations" above), with a few others. Investors are mostly from the food processing, furniture, automotive and transport & logistics industries. Foreign companies are primarily attracted by low labour costs, but also by the relatively good road and railway networks in the vicinity, good vocational skills of workers (heritage of the communist era) and relatively liberal employment laws. As compared with Germany, there are far fewer restrictions, e.g. on shop opening hours.
Worth noticing is also the positive attitude of public administration towards investments, and less annoying "red tape" than elsewhere in Poland.
Investment into transportation was mostly in the public transport area. While number of cars grew at least twice since 1989, the policy of improving public transport gave good effects. Limiting car access to the city center, building new tram lines (inc. Poznanski Szybki Tramwaj) and investing in new rolling stock (such as modern Combino trams by Siemens and Solaris low-floor buses) actually increased ridership. This is a notable success, even considering that Polish society possesses about half of "old EU" purchasing power and thus not everybody can own a car.
Future investments into transportation include the construction of a "third ring road" around the city, and the completion of A2 (E30) highway towards Berlin. In the public transport area (and non-car transportation), further investment must be made into the development bicycle paths (and the linking of presently existing ones), and an attempt is presently made of developing Karlsruhe-style light rail system for commuters. All that is made more complicated (and more expensive) by the heavy neglect of transportation throughout communist era.
Members of Sejm elected from Poznań constituency
- Andrzej Aumiller, SLD-UP
- Waldy Dzikowski, PO
- Maciej Giertych, LPR
- Anna Górna-Kubacka, SLD-UP
- Marcin Libicki, PiS
- Krystyna Łybacka, SLD-UP
- Joanna Nowiak, SLD-UP
- Sylwia Pusz, SdPL, (formerly SLD-UP
- Małgorzata Stryjska, PiS
- Michał Stuligrosz, PO
Members of European Parliament elected from Poznań constituency
- Filip Kaczmarek, PO
- Jan Kułakowski, UW
- Marcin Libicki, PiS
- Jan Masiel, Samoobrona
- Marek Siwiec, SLD-UP
- Witold Tomczak, LPR
- collective work, Poznań. Dzieje, ludzie kultura, Poznań 1953
- K. Malinowski (red.), Dziesięć wieków Poznania, t.1, Dzieje społeczno-gospodarcze, Poznań 1956
- collective work, Poznań, Poznań 1958
- collective work, Poznań. Zarys historii, Poznań 1963
- Cz. Łuczak, Życie społeczno-gospodarcze w Poznaniu 1815–1918, Poznań 1965
- J. Topolski (red.), Poznań. Zarys dziejów, Poznań 1973
- Zygmunt Boras, Książęta Piastowscy Wielkopolski, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1983
- Jerzy Topolskiego (red.), Dzieje Poznania,Wydawnictwo PWN, Warszawa – Poznań 1988
- Alfred Kaniecki, Dzieje miasta wodą pisane, Wydawnictwo Aquarius, Poznań 1993
- Witold Maisel (red.), Przywileje miasta Poznania XIII-XVIII wieku. Privilegia civitatis Posnaniensis saeculorum XIII-XVIII. Władze Miasta Poznania, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, Wydawnictwa Żródłowe Komisji Historycznej, Tom XXIV, Wydawnictwo PTPN, Poznań 1994
- Wojciech Stankowski, Wielkopolska, Wydawnictwo WSiP, Warszawa 1999
Stare Miasto | Nowe Miasto | Jeżyce | Grunwald | Wilda
| Historical administrative divisions|
Duchy of Greater Poland (12th-13th centuries) Poznań Voivodship and Kalisz Voivodship (until 1793) South Prussia (until 1806) Poznan Department, Kalisz Department and Bydgoszcz Department (until 1815) Grand Duchy of Poznań (until 1846) Province of Posen (until 1918) Poznań Voivodship (until 1939) Reichsgau Posen (1939) Reichsgau Wartheland (until 1945) Poznań Voivodship (until 1975) Poznań Voivodship, Kalisz Voivodship, Leszno Voivodship, Konin Voivodship and Piła Voivodship (until 1998) Greater Poland Voivodship
| Greater Poland Uprisings|
1794 1806 1846 1848 1918
- History of Poland
- Royal coronations in Poznan cathedral
- Poznan Department (Polish: Departament Poznański): a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1806–1815.
- ChefMoz Dining Guide Poznań – directory with reviews
- Open Directory Project Poznan – intenet directory
- Poznań Multimedia City Guide – Official Minicipality Site
- Interaktywny Poznań – city guide
- Poznan4u – city guide
- ePoznan.net – local portal
- Poznań Nasze Miasto – city guide
- Poznań Inaczej – city guide
- Wirtualny Poznań – city guide
- Stare i Nowe widoki Poznania – historical and modern pictures
- Poznań City Guide
- Internet Guide to Poznań
- Poznań International Fair
- Stary Browar (Old Brewery) Centre of Business and Arts
- World Trade Center Poznań
Science and Education
- Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
- Poznan University of Technology
- Poznań University of Economics
- Poznan University of Medical Sciences
- Ignacy Jan Paderewski Academy of Music in Poznań
- University School of Physical Education
- August Cieszkowski Agricultural University in Poznan
- Poznan School of Banking
Culture and History
- The 750th Anniversary of the Poznań Civic Rights Charter
- The Poznańczyk Website; old pictures of the city, maps, etc.
- Royal Castle of Poznań reconstruction committee
- The Castle (Zamek) Centre of Culture
- Poligonal Fortress of Poznań 1815–1914 with Polish text and maps
- Ezoteryczny Poznań – musical city guide
- Poznań Archaeological Museum
- Poznań Location History of 1253 and City Map of 1618
| Voivodships of Poland|
Greater Poland | Kuyavia-Pomerania | Lesser Poland | Łódź | Lower Silesia | Lublin | Lubusz | Masovia | Opole | Podlachia | Pomerania | Świętokrzyskie | Silesia | Subcarpathia | Warmia and Masuria | West Pomerania
| Principal cities|
Warsaw | Łódź | Kraków | Wrocław | Poznań | Gdańsk | Szczecin | Bydgoszcz | Lublin | Katowice | Białystok | Częstochowa | Gdynia | Toruń | Radom | Kielce | Rzeszów | Olsztyn