Novosibirsk (Russian Новосиби́рск, pop. 1,425,600), after Moscow and Saint Petersburg Russia's third largest city, is located in the southwest of Siberian Federal District, at 55°01′ N 82°56′ E. It was founded in 1893 as the future site of the Trans-Siberian railway bridge crossing the great Siberian river Ob. From 1893 until 1925, Novosibirsk was called Novonikolayevsk, after the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast.
The city lies along the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. The climate is sharply continental, with very severe, cold and snowy winters and hot and dry summers. Temperatures in summer range from 20 to 22°C, in winter -18 to -20°C, but can reach -35°C in winter and 35°C in summer . The difference between the highest and the lowest temperature is 88°C. Most of the time the weather is sunny, with an average of 2880 hours of sunshine per year.
Industries include machine manufacturing and metallurgy. It is the home of one of Russia's best universities (situated in a nearby Akademgorodok), a number of institutes and a scientific research center. Novosibirsk boasts opera and ballet companies, several theaters, museums, and art galleries, and numerous sports facilities.
Novosibirsk is home to Russia's most powerful shortwave relay station East of the Ural mountans. This relay station can reach most of South Asia, the Middle East and China. The Magadan and Vladivostok relay stations when operated in conjunction with Novosibirsk can guarentee that the Voice of Russia or any other broadcaster renting time at Novisibirsk is heard in the intended target area.
Novosibirsk is the third city in Russia (after Moscow and Saint Petersburg) in which a metro system was established (The Novosibirsk Metro, opened in 1985). The city is served by Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport, with regular flights to Europe and Asia and other Russian cities. Tolmachevo is the hub for Siberia Airlines.