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19th century

(Redirected from Nineteenth century)
Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical)

(18th century19th century20th centurymore centuries)

The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). Common usage sometimes regards it as lasting from 1800 to 1899, but this is considered incorrect due to the nonexistence of a "Year Zero" before AD 1. The 19th century is also sometimes known as the eighteen hundreds (1800s), referring to the latter usage. Decades are almost always considered as starting with the "0" year and named accordingly ("1890s", etc.), so the first decade of a century technically overlaps back into the preceding one.

Historians sometime use "Nineteenth Century" as a label for the era stretching from 1815 (The Congress of Vienna) to 1914 (The outbreak of the First World War).

Table of contents

Overview

The 19th century continued and expanded the industrial revolution which had begun in the preceding century. It was a century of widespread invention and discovery, and one in which social, cultural, and economic systems were heavily affected by science and technology and the business models built on them, such as a shift from independent artisans and craftspersons to wage laborers employed by large factories as the primary means of production. It was the heyday of capitalism, but it was also the century in which the major opposing ideologies, socialism and communism, arose. The successes up to that time in building mechanical devices and in discovering the natural laws of the universe led to a widespread belief by the end of the century that the world ran predictably as by clockwork and that all of its mysteries would soon be solved by modern science; and, similarly, all of the social problems of human society could be solved too by application of scientific principles. These beliefs were soon dashed by 20th century developments such as relativity and quantum physics, and by the wars and genocides of that century.

The supposed statement of a patent official during the 19th century, that his office should be disbanded because everything useful had already been invented, is an urban legend, however.

Events

Significant people

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Decades and years

1790s 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799
1800s 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809
1810s 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819
1820s 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829
1830s 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839
1840s 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849
1850s 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859
1860s 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869
1870s 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879
1880s 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889
1890s 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899
1900s 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909







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