List of political parties in the Netherlands
Table of contents
- Christian Democratic Appeal (Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Christian Union (ChristenUnie)
- Democrats 66 (Democraten 66)
- Green Left (GroenLinks)
- Independent Senate Group (Onafhankelijke Senaatsfractie)
- Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid)
- List Pim Fortuyn (Lijst Pim Fortuyn)
- Socialist Party (Socialistische Partij)
- Political Reformed Party (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij)
- People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie)
Other groups in parliament:
- Groep Lazrak – Split off from the SP
- Group Wilders – Split off from the VVD
Other active parties
- Europe Transparent (Europa Transparant)
- Frisian National Party (Fryske Nasjonale Partij), active in Friesland
- The Greens (De Groenen)
- Liveable Netherlands (Leefbaar Nederland)
- Mobile Netherlands (Nederland Mobiel)
- New Communist Party of the Netherlands (Nieuwe Communistische Partij Nederland)
- New Right (Nieuw Rechts) – a split from Leefbaar Rotterdam
- Party for Justice, Action and Progress (Partij voor Rechtvaardigheid, Daadkracht en Vooruitgang)
- Party for the Animals (Partij voor de Dieren)
- Progressive Integration Party (Vooruitstrevende Integratie Partij)
- Party New Limburg (Partij Nieuw Limburg)
- Socialist Alternative Politics (SAP) – Socialistisch Alternatieve Politiek. Previously: Socialist Worker's Party (Socialistische Arbeiderspartij)
Other parties recently active, but now defunct
- Alliance for Renewal and Democracy (Alliantie voor Vernieuwing en Democratie, now defunct)
- The Conservatives (de Conservatieven.nl, now defunct)
- Sustainable Netherlands (Duurzaam Nederland, now defunct)
- List Veldhoen – Lijst Veldhoen, now defunct
- List Ratelband – LijstRatelband.nl, bow defunct
- Party of the Future (Partij van de Toekomst, now defunct)
- O O The Hague (O O Den Haag), was initially registered for 2003 elections but withdrew.
Parties that no longer exist
- Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP) – Anti-Revolutionary Party (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Boerenpartij (BP) – Farmers' Party (disbanded)
- Bond van Vrije Liberalen – Association of Free Liberals (merged into Liberale Staatspartij)
- Christelijk-Democratische Unie (CDU) – Christian-Democratic Union (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
- Christelijk-Historische Unie (CHU) – Christian-Historical Union (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Communistische Partij Nederland (CPN) – Communist Party Netherlands (merged into GroenLinks)
- Evangelische Volkspartij (EVP) – Envangelical Peoples Party (merged into GroenLinks)
- Gereformeerd Politiek Verbond (GPV) – Reformed Political Union (merged into ChristenUnie)
- Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP) – Catholic Peoples Party (merged into Christen-Democratisch Appèl)
- Liberale Staatspartij (LSP) – Liberal State Party (merged into Partij van de Vrijheid)
- Liberale Unie – Liberal Union (merged into Liberale Staatspartij)
- Maoïstische Leninistische Partij (MOLP) – Maoist Leninist Party, a fake party founded in 1970 by the Dutch Intelligence Service BVD and the CIA, to reseach support for Maoism and to fool the People's Republic of China.
- Pacifistisch-Socialistische Partij (PSP) – Pacifist-Socialist Party (merged into GroenLinks)
- Partij van de Vrijheid (PvdV) – Freedom Party (became Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie)
- Politieke Partij Radicalen (PPR) – Political Party Radicals (merged into GroenLinks)
- Reformatorische Politieke Federatie (RPF) – Reforming Political Federation (merged into ChristenUnie)
- Rooms Katholieke Staats Partij (RKSP) – Roman Catholic State Party (predecessor of KVP)
- Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij (SDAP) – Social Democratic Workers Party (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
- Solidair '93 – Appears not to have contested elections after 1998.
- Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond (VDB) – Freethinking Democratic League (merged into Partij van de Arbeid)
Parties with uncertain status
- Algemeen Ouderen Verbond (AOV)/[[Unie 55+]] – General Senior Union/Union 55+
- Centrum Democraten (CD) – Central Democrats
- Centrumpartij (CP) – Centrum Party (later Centrumpartij '86)
- Democratisch Socialisten '70 (DS'70) – Democratic Socialists '70
- Nieuwe Midden Partij (NMP) – New Middle Party
- Senioren 2000 – Seniors 2000
- Verenigde Senioren Partij (VSP) – United Senior Party
Descriptions of some of the parties
The Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA, Labour Party), a European social democratic party, is left of center. Its program is based on greater social, political, and economic equality for all citizens. Former PvdA-prime minister Joop den Uyl has called it an "equal spread of knowledge, income and power." In recent years the party has begun to debate the role of central government in that process. Although called the Labour Party, it has no formal links to the trade unions. In practice, however, strong links exist, with PvdA politicians often beginning their careers in the FNV labour union.
The Christen-Democratisch Appèl supports free enterprise and holds to the principle that government activity should supplement but not supplant communal action by citizens. On the political spectrum, the CDA sees its philosophy as standing between the "individualism" of the VVD and the "statism" of the Labour Party.
The Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD) is a conservative liberal party. It thus attaches great importance to private enterprise and the freedom of the individual in political, social, and economic affairs. The VVD is generally seen as the most right wing of the major parties, though the List Pim Fortuyn took a position to the right of the VVD.
Democraten 66 (D66) has had widely fluctuating electoral fortunes since the party's founding in 1966. It is a liberal democrat (center) party, generally portrayed as between the CDA and PvdA, with its strongest support among young, urban, professional voters. It professes a pro-European platform of ethnic and religious toleration.
GroenLinks combines, as the name (which translates to GreenLeft) says, a Green (ecologist) with a Left-wing stance. It operates to the left of the PvdA. The party was erected in 1989 as a fusion of a left-radical, a pacifist, a communist and a left wing Christian party; since then, the party moved more to the centre of the political spectre. In 2004, the party leader Femke Halsema announced she saw her own party as a leftist liberal party, breaking with its socialist roots. Like D66, it is a pro-European and even more so a multiculturalist party.
The Socialistische Partij (SP) is the most radical left-wing party. In the 1970s and 1980s, it was a People's Republic of China-supported Maoist party, but in 1991 the SP dropped its communist course, and chose a more independent and less radical socialist course, denouncing Maoism and the People's Republic of China. The party itself has called it a move "from socialism to a social ism."
The Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF) is a right-wing populist party. It was erected by the popular politician Pim Fortuyn for the 2002 elections, but Fortuyn himself was murdered 9 days before the elections. After that, it had a difficult year with much internal struggles, which led to CDA and VVD ending the government coalition which they had formed with the LPF.
The ChristenUnie is a Christian party, which mostly concentrates on ethical issues, such as a resistance against abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage. In other areas (e.g. immigration and the environment), the party often is closer to the left-wing parties.
The Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij (SGP) is a very conservative Christian party, with even stronger ethical points of view than the ChristenUnie. Although a very small party on a national level, it is an important political power in some conservative-christian municipalities. The party sees governments (local, regional, national and international) as unconditional servants of God. The party bases all of its views directly on the Bible.