Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the major natural disasters of modern times. On 26 December the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, struck off the northwest coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra, spawned a tsunami that wreaked havoc along much of the rim of the Indian Ocean. Particularly hard-hit were the countries of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Over 280,000 people were killed, tens of thousands more were injured and over one million were made homeless.
Table of contents
The tsunami exacted a heavy toll on coastal communities and especially fisherfolk in the region. In India and Thailand, government and Civil Society Organisations have been able to mobilise resources and are responding as quickly as possible. India is also providing assistance to neighbouring countries. The people and governments in the nations of Sri Lanka and Indonesia are doing all they can but have been overwhelmed by the enormity of the catastrophe, especially in inaccessible areas.
Many usual sources of water were spoiled by salt water, broken by the force of the tsunami, or contaminated with bodies of dead people or livestock, requiring water purification equipment or trucking potable water into the affected region. Other high priorities were delivery of medical supplies and personnel to overwhelmed hospitals and clinics, tent shelters and clothing to people who have lost their houses and belongings, and food, especially baby food. Several governments have appealed for body bags to assist in the safe disposal of corpses.
Information about the impact of the tsunami on individual countries is available for:
Contributing countries and supra-national organisations
Governments, humanitarian organisations, Asian expatriates and individuals around the world scrambled to offer aid and technical support. The World Bank initially estimated the amount of aid needed at USD 5 billion . Although countries are providing relief funds, the UN had criticised both the US and Europe for allocating inadequate resources. By 1 January 2005 over USD1.8 bn (GBP1bn) had been pledged.
In wake of the disaster, Australia, India, Japan and the United States formed a coalition to co-ordinate aid efforts to streamline immediate assistance, however, at the Jakarta Summit on 6 January, the coalition transferred responsibilities to the United Nations.
Criticism of donor response
The US government, led by President George W. Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell, reacted with annoyance to the statement and on December 28 added another USD 20 million to their original pledge of USD 15 million, bringing the total up to USD 35 million, not including direct aid to be rendered by naval vessels dispatched to the region (). On December 31 the US pledge was increased ten fold to USD 350 million (), with President Bush saying that that amount will probably increase. President Bush also signed a decree ordering flags to be flown at half-mast during the first week of the new year.
Serious concern has been raised that the international relief effort may falter if nations do not honour their pledges. On 3 January, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan urged the donor nations to ensure that their pledges will be fully honoured, pointing to previous cases where "we got lots of pledges, but we did not receive all the money" .
On 5 January 2005, as countries jockeyed to make large donations, Jan Egeland said, "I'd rather see competitive compassion than no compassion", adding that too many countries were making pledges that may never arrive . Following last year's Bam, Iran earthquake, which killed 26,000 people, Iranian officials claim to have received just USD 17.5 million of the USD 1 billion originally pledged . In mid-March, the Asian Development Bank reported that over USD 4 billion in aid promised by government was behind schedule. Sri Lanka criticised the nations and organisations that clamoured to pledge donations, “Not a penny had come through yet. We are doing the relief work with our government money. Sri Lanka is still waiting for the money pledged by the donors. Money pledged by the people has been pledged to the NGOs." ()
Sri Lanka's Foreign Minister, Laxman Kadirgamar, stated in a BBC interview, “A lot of aid which has been coming in latterly [sic] is I’m afraid – I’m sorry to say – not very useful. For instance there was a container full of teddy bears. They’re obviously given with good will, nobody says no to that." The patience of tsunami affected nations are being stretched, “Now the government had worked out a scheme that until the 26th April everything that has come, everything that will be on the seas will be admitted tax free. After that, no!”. Kadiragamar went on to say, “For instance we do not need rice, we are expecting a bumper harvest, anyone who sends rice is wasting their time and money." ()
Many commentators claim excessive and competitive donor responses threaten less dramatic but equally important relief efforts elsewhere. "While everyone opens up their coffers for these disasters, the ongoing toll from malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis is much larger than these one-time events", said Enriqueta Bond, president of the US Burroughs Wellcome Fund. "We would do more good to invest in prevention and good public-health measures such as clean water". Tony Blair, the UK prime minister, also expressed concern that tsunami aid could detract from other pressing development needs. He pointed out that there was a disaster comparable to a "preventable tsunami every week in Africa", where 10,000 people die daily from AIDS and malaria alone .
Criticism of recipient response
In the early stages, before the extent of the disaster was clear, Sri Lanka refused Israel's offers of aid, objecting to the inclusion of 60 Israeli soldiers in the 150-person mission planned by Israel's army, to set up field hospitals, including internal medicine and paediatric clinics, an Israeli army spokesman reported to BBC. The Israeli humanitarian organisation Latet sent a jumbo jet carrying 18 metric tons of supplies to Colombo, however, and a rescue-and-recovery team from the Jewish ultra-Orthodox organisation Zaka arrived in Colombo with equipment used for identifying bodies, as well as body bags BBC News December 28 2004. Corruption, bureaucracy and nationalism hampered the humanitarian response in Indonesia . The Indonesia government is reported to have flown Muslim militants into Aceh to help the relief effort. On January 12, the Indonesian government put restrictions on the movement of journalists and aid workers, obstensibly for their protection from Acehnese insurgents. However, there were concerns that this was a clumsy attempt by the government to gather control over, and credit for, relief efforts in an attempt to gain an edge over the rebels.
In Sri Lanka, only 30% of those elgible impacted by the tsunami as of Feb 10, 2005 have received any aid, and there are allegations of local officials giving aid only to their supporters, some of whom were not victims of the tsunami. The Sri Lankan government has set up a "Special Complaint Unit" for citizens to record grievances.
List of major donors
Note: Exchange rates were taken on 8 January 2005, when EUR€1 = USD$1.30585; GBP£1 = USD$1.87110; CAD$1 = USD$0.811853; AUD$1 = USD$0.757346; HKD$1 = USD$0.1282 ; 1 INR= USD$0.0228102; 1 CNY= 0.120831; 1 NOK = USD$0.158526; 1 DKK = 0.175711; 1 SEK = USD$0.144363; 1 CHF = USD$0.844131
|Country||Government||Permille of GNP|| NGOs & Public|
donations – see below)
|Permille of GNP|| Total |
|Permille of GNP |
|Australia||AUD 1,377bn (see below) (USD 1,099bn) ||?||AUD 280M (USD 223.4M) ||?||1,322||?|
|Austria||EUR 50M (USD 65.30M)  ||0.26||EUR 20M (USD 26.12M) ||0.10||91.42||0.36|
|Belgium||EUR 12M (USD 15.67M)||0.05||EUR 38.05M (USD 49.70M) ||0.17||65.37||0.22|
|Canada||Federal CAD 425M (USD 344.96M)  Provincial CAD 18.5M (USD 15.02M) ||0.70||Public CAD 230 (USD 185.8M) , BusinessCAD 36.3M (USD 29.47M)||0.28||743.68||0.98|
|China (PRC)||CNY 522M (USD 63.07M)  plus USD 20M ||0.035||(USD) 12M||0.005||> 95.07||> 0.04|
|Czech Republic||CZK 200M (USD 9M)||0.10||CZK 230M (USD 10M)||0.12||19||0.22|
|Denmark||DKK 420M (USD 74M) ||0.44||DKK 200M (USD 36M) ||0.21||110||0.65|
|European Union||USD 615M||n/a||n/a||n/a||615||n/a|
|Finland||EUR 50M (USD 65.3M) ||0.40||EUR 18.5M (USD 24.2M)||0.15||89.5||0.55|
|France||EUR 42M (USD 54.84M)||0.03||?||?||> 54.84||> 0.03|
|Germany||EUR 500M (USD 653M)  + EUR 20M (USD 26M) for immediate aid||0.27||EUR 450M (USD 580M) ||0.22||> 1,300||> 0.50|
|Greece||EUR 1.3M (USD 1.7M)||0.01||EUR 19M (USD 24.8M) ||0.14||26.5||0.15|
|Hong Kong||HKD 50M (USD 6.41M)||0.04||HKD 400M (USD 51.28M)||0.32||57.5||0.36 |
|India||INR 8 billion (USD 183M)||0.3||?||?||> 183||> 0.3|
|Republic of Ireland||EUR 20M (USD 26.12M)||0.15||EUR 75M (USD 97.94M) (Source: Irish Times 18/3/05)||0.92||117.94||1.09|
|Italy||EUR 70M (USD 91.4M) ||EUR 42M (USD 57.3M) ||  ;||> 120.13||> 0.085|
|Japan||USD 500M ||0.115||?||?||> 500||> 0.115|
|Kuwait||USD 100M ||?||?||> 100|
|Netherlands||EUR 230M (USD 300.5M)||0.58||> EUR 160.5M (USD 208.6M) ||> 0.41||> 509.1||> 0.99|
|New Zealand||NZ 68M (USD 47.2M) ||> NZ 19M (USD 13.1M)||> 60.4|
|Norway||NOK 1.1 billion (USD 175.3M) ||NOK 564M (USD 89.8M) ||265.1||1.19|
|Portugal||EUR 8M (USD 10.45M)||0.07||?||?||10.45||0.07|
|Qatar||USD 25M ||1.43||?||?||> 25||> 1.43|
|Spain||EUR 56M (USD 73.13M)||0.087||?||?||> 73.13||> 0.087|
|Saudi Arabia||USD 30M ||67.4M, USD ||> 97.4||>|
|Sweden||SEK 500M (USD 72.2M) ||SEK 728M (USD 105M) ||177.2||0.5|
|Switzerland||CHF 27M (USD 22.8M)||CHF 211.1M (USD 178.2M)  as of 11 February 2005||200.9||0.64|
|Taiwan (ROC)||USD 50.0M ||USD 60M||110||0.34|
|Turkey||TRY 28.9M ||?||?||37.6|
|United Arab Emirates||USD 20M||?||?||20|
|United Kingdom||GBP 75M (USD 140.3M) ||0.083||GBP 350M (USD 654.9M)  as of 26 February 2005||0.38||795.2||0.47|
|United States||USD 950M ||0.086||USD 989M ||0.083||1939||0.17|
|World Bank||USD 250M ||n/a||n/a||250||n/a|
Pledged amounts as percentages of GDP
The table below examines the amounts pledged for humanitarian efforts in light of rough national economic power, which is arguably a more useful measures. There are a number of caveats that should be kept in mind while reading the table:
- The figures do not include the cost of operating military resources deployed to provide aid, and it is unclear how this should be quantified. While some would argue that military resources are already paid for and that the relief effort can be regarded as a logistics training exercise, the increased operational costs are an unbudgeted expenditure. Others would argue that the military resources provide the only infrastructure that will deliver aid in a timely manner to save lives to the hardest hit and neediest areas, and without this quickly deployable infrastructure the other contributions, no matter how large would be useless or arrive too late.
- The figures don't tell anything about the rate in which the money will be spent. How much of the money is going to be spent this year and how much is reserved for long-term reconstructions efforts is not reflected by this table.
- Use of Gross Domestic Product (or Gross National Product) should be treated with caution as this does not accurately measure a country's ability to provide aid. Similarly, whether to use 'nominal' or 'real' GNP/GDPs can be argued. Some GDP/GNP figures are also out of date e.g. for the year 2002, or even 2001, so comparisons between countries may not be for the same time period. A better comparison might be used by examining Purchasing Power Parity-adjusted GDP/GNP figures (as used in the CIA factbook).
- "Aid" is an ambiguous term that may cover a wide variety of methods, such as 'soft' loans or 'tied aid', where the money has to be spent buying goods ands services from the donating country. The terms by which the aid is accepted play a large role in determining how useful it is.
- This is aid for one particular disaster. Without knowing how much aid the various countries and their people donate to other disasters, one cannot draw conclusions on their overall level of generosity.
- The numbers below are the pledged contributions. Arguably, only funds that are actually transferred should be counted. For example, after the Bam earthquake in December 2003, the Iranian government received only 17.5 million from the one billion (USD) of international donations that were promised .
- The amounts pledged by individual sovereign nations within the European Union should be increased by amounts pledged by the European Union itself.
With all the caveats in mind, the following table lists some countries in order of nominal aid donated divided by GDP.
|Country|| GDP (2003 or earlier)|
(USD billions)See 
| Aid (total)|
|% of GDP|| Aid by government|
|% of GDP|| Aid by public|
|% of GDP|
|Republic of Ireland||148.6||117.94||0.079||20||0.0135||97.94||0.0659|
|United Arab Emirates||70.96||25||0.035|
Pledged amounts on a per capita basis
- Another way of looking at the figures.
|Country|| Population (July 2004 or earlier)|
See CIA Factbook
| Aid (total)|
|per capita (USD)|| Aid by government|
|per capita (USD)|| Aid by public|
|per capita (USD)|
|Republic of Ireland||3,939,558||117.94||29.94||20||5.08||97.94||24.86|
|United Arab Emirates||2,523,915||20||7.92|
Asia and Oceania
|Cambodia||The Royal Cambodian Government has donated USD 40,000 total: USD 10,000 each to India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. See Xinhua news report|
|China (PRC)||The PRC government will send RMB 521.63 million (USD 63 million) to South and Southeast Asia. The overall donations from the Chinese public up to now are over 150 million RMB.|
|Hong Kong|| As of 7 January 2005, citizens of Hong Kong have donated a total of HKD 560 million (USD 71.8 million) (CRHK, HKET).
Hutchison Whampoa Limited and Li Ka Shing Foundation of Hong Kong announced on 28 December 2004 that they would donate HKD 24 million (USD 3.08 million) for the relief fund. Performer Karen Joy Morris (aka. Karen Man Wai Mok) pledged to donate HKD 200 thousand (Ming Pao). Performers of EEG also pledged to donate a total sum of HKD 630 thousand. Sir Run Run Shaw has donated HKD 10 m.
Hong Kong Jockey Club has donated HKD 10 m, and will donate HKD 1 for each dollar it received from donors (target at a minimum HKD 10 m). MTR donated HKD 0.5 for each passenger trip on 2 January 2005, with a total sum at HKD 1 m. KCR donated all the fares collected in the four-hour extension of train services on 1 January 2005.
Hong Kong Red Cross has collected HKD 100 m (global target USD 46 m / HKD 360 m). MSF has stopped collected donations for the tsunami, and requested donors to donate to its other programmes. World Vision Hong Kong has collected HKD 50 m.
The government of Hong Kong has sent 120 personnel to help Hong Kong residents and search for missing people. Police and medical teams are stand-by to offer assistance.
|Macau||Macau Red Cross has collected MOP 35 m.|
|India||The federal government has pledged INR 1 billion (USD $23 million) to Sri Lanka and Maldives in addition to warships and aircraft to distribute relief supplies. A federal budgetary allocation of INR 7 billion (USD 160 million) has been earmarked for immediate distribution to affected Indian provinces.|
|Japan|| The Japanese government will provide USD 500 million in aid to affected countries. Emergency medical teams were sent to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives.
Japan, which is the world's second largest donor of Official Development Assistance (known as ODA), is also dispatching Japan Self-Defense Forces vessels off Northern Sumatra to supply aid. Land, Air, and Maritime Forces were already ordered preparation.
|Malaysia||Malaysia has also sent rescue teams abroad to as local damage were minimal and this freed the Special Malaysian Rescue Team (SMART) to fly to Indonesia. The team 73-member combination unit from SMART, Malaysian Red Crescent Society and the Fire and Rescue Department were sent to medan with food supply, medicine and clothing for about 2,000 victims. An additional military doctors team in a CN 235 aircraft and a Nuri helicopter were also sent to Aceh. Further aid are being sent using C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. MERCY (Malaysian Medical Relief Society) Malaysia, a volunteer body for humanitarian relief consisting of doctors and nurses have also flown to Sri Lanka. Currently, it has two teams based in Kesdam Military Hospital, one of the 2 surviving hospitals in Banda Aceh. Malaysia also has opened its airspace and two airports, Subang Airport and Langkawi International Airport to relief operations and acts as a staging base to forward relief supplies to Aceh.|
|North Korea||The government of North Korea has pledged USD 150,000. |
Upon arrival, a co-ordination meeting was held onboard PNS Moawin between Sri Lanka Navy officials, Pakistan High Commissioner to Sri Lanka and Pakistan Navy Mission Commander Commodore Ehsan Saeed to discuss the modus operandi of the relief operat
|Singapore|| The Singapore government has pledged SGD 5m to relief efforts initially, including SGD 1m in cash to the Singapore Red Cross Society (SRCS). As of January 8, SRCS has collected more than SGD 27m. At an emergency disaster summit in Jakarta, the government has pledged an additional USD 10m to help victims of the tsunami disaster. A government-linked investment company, Temasek Holdings, has earmarked USD 10m for relief work. The government has also offered the use of its air and naval bases as a staging area to the United Nations and other relief agencies as well as to other countries, including the US, Australia, France and Japan. The United Nations has also accepted Singapore's offer to set up a UN Regional Coordination Centre to coordinate relief efforts to stricken areas .
The Singaporean humantarian relief operation involves more than 1200 military and civil defence personnel – of whom 900 are in Aceh, Indonesia. The humanitarian assistance provided by its military, medical and rescue teams is estimated to cost SGD 20m. Singapore has also offered to rebuild hospitals and clinics in Aceh.
The Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) has deployed three amphibious transport dock – RSS Endurance, RSS Persistance and RSS Endeavour – off the coast of Meulaboh, one of the worst hit areas where all road access was cut off. Onboard these ships were medical and engineering teams and volunteers with NGOs. The ships were also loaded with medical supplies and heavy equipment to help clear roads and debris. It has also dispatched six Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Aceh, two Chinook helicopters and two Super Puma helicopters to Phuket, Thailand. C130s were also dispatched to ferry relief supplies to tsunami-hit areas .
|South Korea||The South Korean Government has pledged an additional USD 1.4m on 28 December in addition to an earlier offer of support of USD 600,000. A 20-person emergency aid team consisting of 5 medical specialists, nurses and administrative staff has been dispatched to Sri Lanka by The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and a medical aid group. On 29 December a shipment with medicine and medical supplies worth SKW 200m (USD 192,000) followed the team.|
|Taiwan (ROC)||The ROC government has pledged USD 50.0m in aid to affected countries. If private philanthropic donations are calculated, relief aid from Taiwan would be expected to reach USD 60m. Other forms of humanitarian aid include over 30,000 tons in emergency supplies and 50 medical teams to be dispatched to affected areas .|
|Tonga||The government of Tonga has pledged USD 65,000 and the Tongan public has donated TOP 22,887. |
|Austria||The government will give aid worth EUR 50m (USD 65.30m) . The Austrian public has also donated approximately EUR 18m .|
|Belgium||Belgian government has sent EUR 12m (USD16.4m). Various organisations such as Artsen zonder Grenzen are sending medical teams. During the charity show on the 14th of January, public and private media in Belgium have more than EUR 38m collected.|
|Bulgaria||The Bulgarian Military Academy of Medicine has allocated BGN 200,000 (EUR 100,000) worth of aid to Indonesia and Sri Lanka in the form of medicines and emergency equipment. The Bulgarian Red Cross and the national emergency agency have sent emergency equipment, drugs and shelters.|
|Croatia||The Croatian government has decided to allocate HRK 4m (EUR 520,000) for aid to the stricken region (the amount shall be split equally between India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Thailand). Croatian Red Cross will contribute with HRK 4.8m (EUR 630,000) from public donations.|
|Czech Republic||The Czech government will give aid worth CZK 200m (EUR 6.5m or USD 8.7m), in various forms . Public donations add more than CZK 230m, about USD 10m. The total makes the country a leading donor from the former Eastern bloc.|
|Denmark|| The Danish government will give aid worth DKR 300 m (EUR 40.38m).
Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen said that Denmark will increase this amount if it is deemed necessary by the UN or emergency relief organisations.
|Finland||The Finnish government has already delivered EUR 4.5m to help the victims of the tsunami, EUR 5.5m will be given to helping aid organisations when requested. In addition, EUR 75,000 and a field hospital from the Finnish Red Cross and EUR 25,000 from Save the Children Finland will be sent.|
|France||The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced on 29 December that EUR 22.16m is being pledged. EUR 15m has been allocated to the UN's agencies and Red Cross, while EUR 1.56m should be used for the immediate assistancy. Another EUR 5.6m part of this sum is the first French participation to the European aid. EUR 20m has been pledged on 30 December, mostly for clean water installations. EUR 100,000 has been given by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 27 December, and a plane with 100 rescue personnel and 800kg of medical supplies was sent.|
|Germany||The German government has initially allocated EUR 20m (USD 26m) for immediate aid. Fast-response teams of the governmental technical relief organisation (THW) were sent to Thailand and Sri Lanka for rescue purposes on 28 December, together with drinking water purification equipment to be installed in Galle (Sri Lanka). Additional water purification equipment was sent to the Maledives and Indonesia on first days of this year. During the last weeks, several medical and supporting units of the German armed forces have been sent to the region, including a supporting frigate and medevac airlifts. Australian and German forces have joined to build a large-scale field hospital at the scene. The German Chancellor has proposed to release the most affected countries from their debts and to create a scheme under which every EU nation "adopts" (where one has to note that the German word for adoption or godparenthood has a less demeaning undertone than the English one) one of the most severely affected countries and ensures long-lasting aid. German charities (TV shows, private donations) top as of 5 January 2005 more than USD 400m. Additionally, the German government will give EUR 500m; in a period of 3 to 5 years for long-term-help.|
|Greece|| Greece will allocate EUR 0.3m (USD 0.4m) to the Maldives and Sri Lanka, and two planes will carry to those countries over 6 tonnes of humanitarian materials.
The Greek people raised over EUR 15m (USD 19.9m) through private donations made during a TV charity marathon which included the auction of articles such as commemorative items from the Athens Olympic Games and the Euro 2004 event, as well as the fountain pen of the retreating President of the Hellenic Republic. The Greek Government added EUR 1m (USD 1.3m) to the initial amount.
|Hungary||Hungary sent a medical and rescue team of 10 as well as two containers and ten pallets of emergency goods to Thailand and Srí Lanka.|
|Iceland||The Icelandic government has pledged ISK 5m (USD 70,000) to the Icelandic Red Cross  which will "make sure the money gets into the right hands". An aeroplane from Loftleiðir Icelandic (a subsidiary of Flugleiðir) Phuket island departed from Iceland on 28 December 2004 to pick up Swedish survivors. A little under 10 tonnes of Iceland Spring Water manufactured by Ölgerðin Egill Skallagrímsson were also sent . On January 7. the Icelandic government announced that the total contribution to the earthquake disaster in Asia will be ISK 150m (USD 2.5m) .|
|Republic of Ireland||The Irish government has pledged EUR 20m (USD 26.12m) in response to the earthquake-caused disaster in South Asia  – the majority of the money will be given to Irish Aid organisations and the UN. In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, the Irish public quickly started collecting money, on the streets, in churches, schools, in shopping centres and many other inititives such as the Work a Day for Free, where many workers throughout the country donated a days wages to the disaster relief fund. An estimated EUR 1m was raised also by pubs and hotels in collections. Hundreds of other events took place throughout the country. The various Irish charities raised over €75m from the public in response to the disaster with the Irish Red Cross, Concern, and Goal all raiseing several million each. The church based charity Trócaire alone raised €27m over just one weeklend Source: Irish Times 18/3/05'|
|Italy||The CEI (Italian Conference of Bishops) has already sent 100,000 euros (part of a donation of USD 1.7m from Caritas Internationalis) and is collecting national donations . Private moneyraising efforts coordinated by newspapers and telephony companies have collected more than EUR 12.6m (). The government has pledged EUR 3m (USD 3.9m). As of 31 December, 5 Italian flights have arrived Sri Lanka carrying an advanced team of 8 experts of the Italian Civil Protection Department with 50 tonnes of equipment and goods (2 field hospitals, 20 doctors and medical staff, medical kits, field kitchens, water pumps, water storages, etc.)|
|Luxembourg||Luxembourg has announced it will donate at least EUR 5m (USD 6.5 million) as humanitarian aid.|
|Netherlands||The Dutch government has reserved EUR 227m (USD 295m) for aid to the affected area. A KDC-10 aircraft of the Dutch Airforce has flown several missions to the affected areas, providing emergency supplies and a mobile hospital unit. Military air-traffic-controllers have been sent to Banda Aceh to help dealing with the stream of relief flights. Also, a specialized forensic identification team has helped to find the identities of dozens of Tsunami victims in Thailand. The Dutch Red Cross has dedicated EUR 100,000 (USD 0.13 million) for emergency aid. Several private initiatives have started, which vary from calls to give money to Samenwerkende Hulporganisaties (Giro 555) to collecting food and other supplies for the affected areas. These initiatives have so far raised EUR 160.5m (USD 208.6m).|
|Norway||The Norwegian government has allocated NOK 1.1bn (USD 180m) to be distributed to the UN, the Red Cross and other aid organisations. The prime minister has also pledged to provide more funds as needed in aid relief coordinated by the United Nations. The Royal Norwegian Air Force and Scandinavian Airlines have established airlift shuttles in order to provide emergency transport services between Thailand and Scandinavia for as long as is necessary. An ongoing appeal  is trying to convince the government to provide a total amount of NOK 10 billion (USD 1.64bn) from the Norwegion Petroleum Fund  to this and future disasters.|
|Poland||The Polish government will donate PLN 1m (USD 0.3m) to Polish aid non-governmental organisations.|
|Portugal||The Portuguese government has approved EUR 8m (USD 10,9m) in aid to victims of the tragedy. The country has already sent a plane with relief supplies to Sri Lanka, and the Government has announced that a second plane with humanitarian aid would be sent in next days, this time to Indonesia.|
|Romania||The Romanian government has approved EUR 150,000 worth of medical aid, tents and beds to South Asia. Additionally, EUR 395,000 was raised by the public in a telethon, bringing the total to EUR 545,500. See |
|Russia||Two transport planes of the Russian Ministry for Emergency Situations landed on Sri Lanka on 27 December carrying humanitarian aid. The planes were carrying 110 tents and 2200 blankets with a total weight of 25 tonnes, Russia also sent a rescue helicopter Bo-105, on board of which rescuers will fly over the area of the calamity and will search for and evacuate people. One more plane sent was sent on 30 December with tents, drinking water, water cleaning stations and other humanitarian aid . The town of Beslan, scene of the 2004 school hostage crisis, will donate RUB 1m (USD 36,000) from the fund set up after the mass hostage-taking . On January 11 Russia sends field hospital equipment to Indonesia. Nearly 150 tons of humanitarian aid were flown to Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia from Dec. 27 to Jan. 10. The humanitarian cargoes, part of them supplied by Belarus, include tents, blankets, bedding, water purification installations and flour .|
|Serbia||The Serbian governemnt has approved immediate delivery of 40 tonnes of humanitarian aid worth EUR 150,000. Two Aviogenex airplanes were provided for the delivery. The Exit Music Festival has collected 317,000 litres of water from sponsors. Serbian Red Cross has started the action of collecting money.|
|Slovenia||The Slovenian government has approved SIT 44m (EUR 185,500) for immediate delivery.|
|Sweden||SEK 500m (USD 75m) will be distributed through SIDA, the Swedish International Development Agency. An extensive relief effort on behalf of the government has been engaged including military personnel, forensic teams, search and rescue teams as Sweden is probably the nation not directly affected by the tsunami to be hardest hit. The Swedish public are also supplying Ngos with money in a never before seen extent (about SEK 500m (or USD 75m)), as well as materials such as clothes and other equipment. Swedish media has still criticised the government for not doing enough for their nationals and for others.|
|Switzerland||The Swiss government has allocated CHF 27m (USD 23.8m). Four teams of the Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit (SHA) have been deployed in India, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Another team of SHA and WHO doctors and logisticians is on the Maldives. 3 "Super Puma" helicopters and 50 personnel were sent to Sumatra under the guidance of the UNHCR. Various relief organisations contributed CHF 1m. The ongoing appeal for donations organised by "Swiss Solidarity" has resulted in CHF 160m being collected (as of 15 January 2005).|
|Vatican City||The Pope has authorised the immediate release of USD 6m, which are to be delivered to the International Red Cross, for use in the humanitarian relief effort.|
Middle East and Africa
|Iran||Iran has sent 221 tonnes of relief supplies consisting of medicine, tents, blankets, clothes and foodstuff to Indonesia as well as donating USD 675,000 through the Red Crescent.|
|Israel||The Israeli government has sent supplies worth USD 100,000 to each affected country. In addition, an Israeli medical team was dispatched to Sri Lanka, and 150 IDF doctors and rescue and relief teams were mobilised for the region with 82-tonnes of aid including 9 tonnes of medicine, nearly 4,000 litres of mineral water, 12 tonnes of food, over 17 tonnes of baby food, 10,000 blankets, tents, sheeting, as well as power generators. An additional offer of assistance to India in the form of search and rescue teams from their Home Front Command as well as food and medicine has also been extended, and the Israeli Ministry of Health has been dispatched to Thailand on medical mission. And ultra-Orthodox Jewish forensic workers, famous in Israel for post-terror bombing victim identification for families and proper burial, have been dispatched to the region to collect and identify victims , , .|
|Kuwait||The Kuwaiti government has donated KWD 3m (USD 10m) as humanitarian aid.|
|Morocco||The Moroccan Foreign Ministry has said that aid, consisting of medical supply, vaccines and blankets, will be dispatched to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Maldives.|
|Mozambique||The Mozambique government has given a "symbolic"  USD 100,000 to an aid appeal, and is encouraging businesses and individuals to donate to accounts set up by the local Red Cross.|
|Oman||Oman is sending relief goods worth USD 3m for the victims of tsunami in Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia.Ali Ibrahim Shanoon Al-Raisi, executive director of Oman Charitable Organization (OCC), the country's Red Crescent, said four consignments carrying 300 tonnes of goods each have already been flown to Sri Lanka and Maldives in the past three days .|
|Qatar||Qatar has offered USD 25m, plus food, medical and logistical supplies .|
|Saudi Arabia||Saudi Arabia has pledged a USD 30m aid package consisting of USD 5m worth of food, tents and medicine, to be transported and distributed via the Saudi Red Crescent and another USD 5 million in funds which will be given to several international aid groups such as the Red Cross and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.|
|South Africa||The South African government’s official financial contribution to tsunami relief consists of coordinated aid to the Maldives. This includes the sending of a freighter with South African helicopters and crew, as well as emergency supplies. The Maldives was selected because, according to Sydney Mufamadi, on behalf of the South African government, ‘it was impossible to confirm the full extent of the damage as hardly any emergency rescue effort had taken place on the islands’ . South Africans themselves have donated an amount of USD 2.6 million in cash and more than 280 tons of food to tsunami relief efforts . Most of these donations have been channeled via the International Red Cross. Updated / checked: 23 February 2005|
|Syria||A Syrian aeroplane loaded with 40 tonnes of medical and food aid took off from Damascus Airport to Indonesia Thursday . The Syrian government newspaper Al-Thawra quoted Syria's Health Minister, Maher al-Hussami, as saying that the load included 20 tonnes of medicine, food and drinking water, as well as 880 blankets|
|Turkey||Turkey has donated TRY 28.9M  (USD 37.6m) so far, which will be used in reconstruction projects and be allocated to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Maldives.|
|UAE||USD 20m and 30 tonnes of food and medicine in the care of the Red Crescent, which is to deliver them to India, Indonesia and Sri Lanka .|
|Brazil||The Brazilian government is awaiting a UN decision on joint humanitarian aid. In the meantime, initial emergency aid of 10 tonnes of food and 8 tonnes of medicine were delivered to Thailand and India by the Brazilian Air Force. In the country, private citizens and small businesses organised a national effort to collect food, medicine and clothes for the populations affected. In Rio de Janeiro, 70 tonnes donated in the city alone by locals, were delivered on 2 January to the Consul of Sri Lanka. Many more tonnes were handed to the local embassies and consulates of the countries affected.|
|Chile||The Chilean government sent a group of four doctors, one engineer and one architect to Indonesia on 1 January 2005 and will remain there for twenty days. In addition, it has opened a special bank account for public donations.|
|Mexico||The Mexican federal government has pledged an aid package of USD 1,100,000 (MXN 12,000,000). Search teams, known as Topos, have been dispached by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE); these teams are experienced in earthquake rescue operations and could be helpful in the rescue of trapped and buried victims. The Mexican armed forces are sending a hospital ship, other vessels, and helicopters. The Mexican Red Cross has also invited Mexican citizens to give aid which will be distributed amongst local agencies.|
Contributing non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
The income of non-governmental organisations and multilateral organisations is derived from governments and individuals. For example, the African Union's contribution is financed by its member states. The following "contributions" may be viewed as either a diversion of funds originally earmarked for other purposes or increased donations to the contributing organisation.
|ADRA|| Silver Spring, Maryland--The Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) is continuing its response in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman Islands to assist those affected by last Sunday's quake and tsunami.
ADRA has set up a crisis command center in Bangkok, Thailand to coordinate its network-wide response.
ADRA International is urgently soliciting emergency donations for this response. To rapidly respond to this disaster only monetary donations are being accepted at this time. Donations can be made to the Asia Tsunami Crisis Fund online www.adra.org/Donation.htmlor by calling 800–424-ADRA (2372). See more information at www.adra.org.
|African Union||The African Union Commission Chairman Alpha Oumar Konaré has announced that the organisation will put forward USD 100,000 towards disaster relief .|
|American Friends Service Committee||Building on AFSC programmes and contacts in Asia, AFSC is providing relief and planning longer-term recovery, particularly to those who might be overlooked by other agencies or relief programmes. See the website at www.afsc.org.|
|American Jewish Committee||The AJC established a Tsunami Relief Fund, and initially allocated USD 60,000 out of its own account. It has subsequently raised an additional USD 450,000. AJC chapters around the United States have reached out to South Asian religious and ethnic organisations in their communities to help organise memorial services, fundraising events, and public expressions of solidarity. And AJC's office in Mumbai (formerly Bombay) has been working tirelessly to assist in the relief efforts in India, aided by Dr David Elcott of AJC's New York staff, who was in India at the time of the tsunami and, after escaping from the seashore, has stayed on to help .|
|American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee||The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) has collected more than USD 2m in individual contributions to the organisation's non-sectarian South Asia Tsunami Relief mailbox , .|
|American Jewish World Service||With USD 3.25 million raised, The American Jewish World Service is particularly focusing efforts on providing direct material relief to the poorest families in affected areas, including providing food, water storage containers, cooking supplies, blankets and temporary shelters and partnering with Direct Relief International to provide immediate shipments of basic medical supplies, water purification materials and oral rehydration therapies to the heavily affected communities in India and Sri Lanka , .|
|Autism Awareness Campaign Sri Lanka||The Auism Awareness Campaign in Sri Lanka are not collecting money themselves but are working with partners, the respected Rotary Club Colombo Regency. They have appealed to the international community not to forget the disabled community and many more who are now disabled as a result of horrific injuries sustained in the tsunami. People can donate online to the Rotary Club Colombo Regency ,dry food rations and medicine can be bought online for further information see the blog|
|Buddhist Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto||The Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu-Chi Foundation of Toronto, has number of ongoing fundraising events throughout the city. Volunteers are focusing on the Asian communities in the Greater Toronto Area. All money raised will be 100% donate to the affect area without administration fee .|
|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons)||Providing various forms of assistance .|
|Médecins Sans Frontières||Dispatching 32 tonnes of relief supplies to Sumatra. Medical and assessment teams have been sent to many of the affected areas  .|
|European Union||The EU is providing immediate emergency aid of EUR 3m (USD 4.1m) for victims to meet "initial vital needs", with more substantial aid (EUR 30m) to be provided later. This is separate from contributions by individual member countries.|
|FIRST||The Fast Israeli Rescue and Search Team is heading a search and rescue mission to Tamil Nadu, India .|
|Hadassah||The Women's Zionist Organization of America has announced mobilising of its medical staff from the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem to provide aid and forensic services in Sri Lanka .|
|International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies||In Geneva the IFRCS appealed for CHF 7.5m (about USD 6.6m) for "immediate support" to an estimated 500,000 survivors.|
|IRW||Islamic Relief Worldwide has increased its emergency appeal to USD 5m. This includes an initial USD 270,650 for relief and rehabilitation intervention in the region, and USD 27,000 to meet the immediate needs of victims in Sri Lanka .|
|Kindhearts||Kindhearts for Charitable Humanitarian Development has representatives in the region providing various forms of assistance. Kindhearts is currently collecting donations for its Indonesian relief opperations .|
|Latet||The non-governmental Israeli Humanitarian Aid organisation, Latet ("to give"), has dispatched a jumbo plane to Sri Lanka with 18 tonnes of equipment and is sending an aid delegation to Thailand .|
|Lions Clubs International|| An initial USD 170,000 from the Lions Clubs International Foundation was been distributed through Lions clubs in the affected areas in the first days of the disaster. A further 50,000 in emergency grants and 250,000 for longer term aid has since been distributed. LCIF has since allocated 10 million dollars towards the relief efforts. Other pledges of support have been received including USD 120,000 from the Lions of Sweden and 200,000 from the Lions of Korea.
All money raised by Lions is being distributed without any administration costs taken out .
|Magen David Adom||The Israeli "Red Cross" dispatched over 4,000 much-needed vials of Albumin by air on 29 December, in order to relieve the casualties of a devastated Sri Lanka .|
|Mennonite Central Committee||Donating more than USD 2.5m in cash plus purchasing USD 1m worth of food, clothing and medical supplies.|
|Medical Institute of Tamils||Providing urgent medical assistance .|
|Oxfam||In India, Oxfam is directing its aid to four regions including the communities of Cuddalore, Naggapattinam, Kannyakumari, and along the southwest coast of Kerala. The agency has put together a USD 13.3m plan to provide immediate relief for people in those regions as well as offer them longer-term assistance to help rebuild their lives and livelihoods. The plan includes digging latrines, repairing water sources, and providing temporary shelter for up to 60,000 people, as well as distributing essential household items such as soap, buckets, and coconut oil. In Sri Lanka, Oxfam has been appointed as a key organisation to provide clean water and sanitation facilities in the northern part of the country. Staff members in four field offices in Trincomalee, Vavuniya, Batticaloa, and Killinochchi have been offering immediate help to the communities around them including providing medical and rescue assistance, shelter materials, food, and water tanks. With its partners, Oxfam is undertaking detailed assessments of the needs in northern, eastern, and southern districts of the country. Additionally, the agency is establishing a new base in the south—in Matara. In Indonesia, Oxfam and UNICEF have been appointed the lead providers of clean water in Banda Aceh and its surrounding district. A provincial capital located on the northern tip of Sumatra, Banda Aceh was one of the areas hardest hit by the tsunami and is now emerging as a coordination centre .|
|Save the Children USA||Along with nearly USD 25m dollars raised thus far, Save the Children USA has focused on protecting the most vulnerable disaster victims, children, who face risks in locations where bonded labour, forced military recruitment and sexual exploitation of them take place. By setting up safe areas consisting of necessities and recreation in Sri Lanka and Indonesia, Save the Children USA is working to interview, identify, register, and reunite children who have been separated from their parents , .|
|United Jewish Communities, Toronto||Just 24 hours after UJA Federation of Greater Toronto opened its Tsunami Relief Fund, the fund had raised more than CAD 150,000 from over 500 donors. Now, surpassing CAD 500,000, the UJC of Toronto is focusing their efforts on the International Rescue Committee for the ongoing delivery of relief supplied for the Aceh province of Indonesia, the Disaster Mitigation Institute and Carita, Catholic Relief, for delivery of food, clothes and shelter in Chennai, India, the coordination from their Mumbai office to work with the local Jewish community with field activities, and the Chabad Lubavitch Organization to provide medical help, meals and clothing in Thailand and the Chabad volunteer campaign in the region's hospitals , .|
|United Jewish Association, Federation of New York||In addition to helping fund the JDC collection, the UJA of New York commission two quarter-page ads in the New York Times, so far raising USD 500,000 in support of South Asian Tsunami victims.|
|UNHCR||The UNHCR in Sri Lanka is opening up its local relief stockpiles to deliver immediate emergency assistance .|
|UN World Food Programme|| Emergency food rations delivered to over one million survivors in first 20 days of crisis, including 750,000 people in Sri Lanka.|
Using every possible means of transport, from landing craft to trucks, WFP has moved a total 10,000 metric tons of food to Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Somalia and Thailand .
|UNICEF|| Clothing and more than 30,000 blankets and sleeping mats to Sri Lanka|
1,600 water tanks, 30,000 blankets, medical supplies and hundreds of thousands of water purification pills to India
Similar supplies to Indonesia and the Maldives.
|United Nations Development Program||USD 100,000 each to Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, the Maldives and Thailand to help them assess and coordinate emergency needs.|
|United Nations Joint Logistics Centre||The UNJLC complements and co-ordinate logistics capacities of co-operating humanitarian agencies during large-scale and complex emergencies. UNJLC has been activated for the Tsunami crisis with the main office in Bangkok, a back-stop office in Rome, an air hub (staging head) in Malaysia and UNJLC cells covering the crisis region, and also based in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia .|
|United Nations Population Fund||Up to USD 1m and extra staff to help ensure that the special health needs of pregnant and nursing women were met .|
|Ve'ahavta||The Canadian Jewish Humanitarian and Relief Commission, Ve'ahavta ("You Shall Love"), is collecting donations which will be used to send more search and rescue personnel and logisticians, facilitate emergency feeding stations, and assist in the financing of other necessary relief items .|
|World Jewish Aid||The aim of the aid given by World Jewish Aid is to help people survive. As the situation deteriorates water contamination and disease threaten the lives of the survivors. The UK group, initially providing GBP 25,000, is working with partners on the ground in India, Indonesia and other affected areas so to realise where their aid should be directed best .|
A much more complete list of American corporate donations may be found at .
|Pfizer||USD 35m (USD 10m cash; USD 25m medicines) |
|Deutsche Bank||EUR 10m (USD 13m)|
|Bristol-Myers Squibb||USD 5m (USD 1m cash; USD 4m medicines) |
|Exxon Mobil||USD 5m |
|Abbott Laboratories||USD 4m (USD 2m cash; USD 2m medicine) |
|Microsoft||USD 3.5m |
|BP||USD 3m |
|Citigroup||USD 3m |
|JP Morgan Chase||USD 3m |
|Royal Dutch/Shell Group||USD 3m |
|UBS AG||USD 3m |
|Cisco Systems||USD 2.5m |
|AIG/The Starr Foundation||USD 2.5m |
|Wal-Mart Stores||USD 2m |
|Daimler Chrysler||USD 2m |
|Johnson & Johnson||USD 2m + medicines |
|Vodafone||GBP 1m (USD 1.95m)|
|Tetra Laval Group||USD 1.5m (including provision of liquid foods) |
|Deutsche Telekom||EUR 1m (USD 1.4m) |
|Siemens AG||EUR 1m |
|Allianz Group||EUR 1m |
|BASF||EUR 1m |
|AXA Group||EUR 1m |
|ChevronTexaco||USD 1.24m |
|Infosys||INR 50m (USD 1.1m) |
|Altana||EUR 750,000 (USD 1m) |
|Boeing||USD 1m |
|ConocoPhillips||USD 1m |
|IBM||USD 1m |
|Pepsi||USD 1m + soft drinks + water |
|Merrill Lynch||USD 1m |
|American Express||USD 1m|
|The Walt Disney Company||USD 1m |
|General Electric||USD 1m |
|First Data Corp. (Parent company of Western Union Money Transfer)||$1m |
|General Motors||USD 1m |
|HSBC||USD 1m |
|Verizon Communications||USD 1m |
|ING||USD 1m |
|Qantas||AUD 1m + flights  page detailing the response by Qantas.|
|Cable & Wireless||USD 1m  page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.|
|Dhiraagu (The Maldives' national telecommunications company)||USD 1m  (also noted on page detailing the response by Cable & Wireless.)|
|Bayer||EUR 500,000 (USD 700,000) |
|Nestlé||CHF640,000 (USD 560,000) |
|The Home Depot||USD 500,000 |
|Texas Instruments||USD 500,000 |
|Carrefour||EUR 300,000 (USD 420,000) |
|Hitachi||JPY 20m (USD 200,000) |
|Hewitt Associates||USD 200,000 |
|Altria||USD 150,000 |
|Independent News & Media||EUR 100,000 |
|MTR Corporation Limited|| HKD 0.5 per passenger trip on 2 January 2005 |
Projected goal: HKD 1m (roughly USD 128,000) .
|MAC||USD 10,000 |
|KCR Corporation||All fares collected during the 4-hour extention service on 1 January 2005 morning.|
|Fonterra||Milk powder and infant formula throughout the region|
|Wing On Travel||Tour guides set off to affected areas to offer assistance and translation services.|
|National Hockey League||USD 100,000+.|
There were numerous large-scale fundraising events with hundreds of participants around the world.
World Cricket Tsunami Appeal
Main article: World Cricket Tsunami Appeal
Two of the nations most affected by the tsunami, India and Sri Lanka, are leading cricket-playing nations. The International Cricket Council has launched the World Cricket Tsunami Appeal to raise funds for the humanitarian effort. The highlight of this is a two-match one-day international series between a World XI and an Asian XI.
It has been reported on Cricinfo that the first of these matches raised AUD 8.4 million.
Other matches, such as those in late January 2005 between the New Zealand national team and a World XI also have fundraising as a primary aim.
- Australia Unites: Reach Out To Asia, a simulcast telethon.
- UK Radio Aid, a fundraising radio show on over 200 British stations
- Tsunami Relief Cardiff, a charity concert, at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, Wales
- WaveAid in Sydney, Australia
- IRB Rugby Aid Match, a rugby match between Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere selections played on March 5 2005 at Twickenham in London
- Football for Hope, a FIFA-sponsored soccer match played between a World XI and a European XI on February 15 2005 at Camp Nou, Barcelona.
- WorldVision.org – Video: Food and clothing distribution in Sri Lanka
- Moving Tsunami Photo Montage "In Your Memory" by Kelly Snyder
- Progressive Change for Tsunami Victims A forum for progressives that identifies NGOS worth supporting and provides news and information
- UN financial tracking
- BBC News: World helps – but will it forget?
- Tsunami Leaves Asia All Shook Up Photos of relief work in Penang Island, Malaysia & other photographs, articles, etc.
- Are you a survivor? Got a story to tell? Join us at the tsunami forum.
- BCZ.com Indian Ocean Earthquake Memorial Sign here to support the cause.
- Wave of Destruction: Worldwide Tsunami Relief Donations for an alternative chart.
- Updates on Tsunami Aftermath in Malaysia An Article by Tourism Malaysia
- Evaluation of the global relief effort and its implications Streaming Video and Power Point Slides
- Volunteer ministers provide relief teams Scientologist organization.