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Comparative military ranks of World War I

The following table shows comparative officer ranks of the principle Allied and Central powers during World War I. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks. See also: Comparative military ranks of World War II
Major participants not shown:
Bulgaria (entered war on side of Central Powers 1914)
Italy (entered war on side of Allies 1915)
USA (entered war on side of Allies 1917)
KEY:

Navy
Army
Air Force
Approximate
modern NATO
equivalent
UK and British Empire France Russian Empire1 German Empire Austro-Hungarian Empire2 Ottoman Empire3
OF-10 Admiral of the Fleet
Field Marshal
Maréchal de France3 Генера́л-адмира́л (General Admiral)
Генера́л-фельдма́ршал (General Field Marshal)
Großadmiral
Generalfeldmarschall
Großadmiral/ Fõtengernagy
Feldmarschall
Müşir
OF-9 Admiral
General
Amiral
Général d´Armée
Адмира́л (Admiral)
Генерал от инфанте́рии/ кавале́рии/ артилле́рии (General of the Infantry/ Cavalry/ Artillery)
Generaladmiral
Generaloberst
Admiral/ Tengernagy
Generaloberst
Birinci Ferik
OF-8 Vice Admiral
Lieutenant General
Vice-Amiral d´Escadre
Général de Corps d´Armée
Ви́це-адмира́л (Vice Admiral)
Генера́л-лейтена́нт (Lieutenant General)
Admiral
General
Vizeadmiral/ Altengernagy
General/Feldzeugmeister (artillery)
Ferik
OF-7 Rear Admiral
Major General
Major General
Vice-Amiral
Général de Division
Ко́нтр-адмира́л (Counter Admiral)
Генера́л-майо́р (Major General)
Vizeadmiral
Generalleutnant
Kontreadmiral/ Ellentengernagy
Feldmarschalleutnant
Mirliva
OF-6 Commodore
Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Contre-Amiral
Général de Brigade
Капита́н 1-го ра́нга (Captain, 1st Rank)
Полко́вник (Polkovnik)
Konteradmiral
Generalmajor

Generalmajor
OF-5 Captain
Colonel
Colonel
Capitaine de Vaisseau
Colonel
Kapitän zur See
Oberst
Linienschiffskapitän/ Sorhajókapitány
Oberst
Miralay
OF-4 Commander
Lieutenant Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Capitaine de Fregate
Lieutenant Colonel
Капита́н 2-го ра́нга (Captain, 2nd Rank)
Подполко́вник (Sub-Polkovnik)
Fregattenkapitän
Oberstleutnant
Fregattenkapitän/ Fregattkapitány
Oberstleutnant
OF-3 Lieutenant Commander
Major
Major
Capitaine de Corvette
Commandant
Ста́рший лейтена́нт (Senior Lieutenant)
Капита́н/ро́тмистр (Captain/Rittmeister)5
Korvettenkapitän
Major
Korvettenkapitän/ Korvettkapitány
Major
Binbaşı
OF-2 Lieutenant
Captain
Captain
Lieutenant de Vaisseau
Capitaine
Лейтена́нт (Lieutenant)
(Шта́бс-капита́н/Шта́бс-ро́тмистр (Stabs-Captain/Stabs-Rittmeister)5
Kapitänleutnant
Hauptmann/Rittmeister6
Linienschiffsleutnant/ Sorhajóhadnagy
Hauptmann/Rittmeister6
Yüzbaşı
OF-1 Sub Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Enseigne de Vaisseau de 1re Classe
Lieutenant
Ми́чман (Midshipman)
Пору́чик/пору́чик (Poruchik/Poruchik) 5
Oberleutnant zur See
Oberleutnant
Fregattenleutnant/ Fregatthadnagy
Oberleutnant
Mülazım-ı evvel
Mate
Second Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Enseigne de Vaisseau de 2me Classe
Sous Lieutenant
Подпору́чик/корне́т (Sub-Poruchik/Coronet)5 Leutnant zur See
Leutnant
Korvettenleutnant/ Korvetthadnagy
Leutnant
Mülazım
Пра́порщик (Praporshchik) (army reserve)

Notes

  1. For transliterations, refer to Russian military ranks.
  2. Austro-Hungarian Naval ranks shown in both German and Hungarian as would have been contempary practise.
  3. Maréchal de France was as much a dignity of state as a military title. Thus British Field Marshals consulted with French Generals in 1914. The elevation of Joffre to Maréchal in 1916 actually marked a diminution of his powers of command.
  4. Military personnel in the Ottoman Empire were assigned different duties according to their capabilities in order to administer the Armed Forces and particularly to be successful in battle. They were given various ranks so that they could conduct relations with each other and be fully aware of their duties. The issue of what sort of duties should be allocated to which unit or to which military institution used to be determined by the ranking within the Armed Forces. In Islamic countries, certain 'degrees', instead of ranks, were given in accordance with the categorization of government duties. In the course of time, these 'degrees' had taken on certain characteristics. In the Ottoman Empire, besides the ranks that were awarded after passing through certain stages of promotion, there was also the rank of "Pasha" that was given directly by the Ottoman Sultan. This rank, which continued until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, was also given to civilian administrators who were approved of and found suitable. After the establishment of the Republic, the Sultanate was abolished, and the title became synonymous with the General rank, restricted to the Armed Forces only. Paymaster of a regiment – Captain of the Right Wing (Alay Emini – Sağ Kolağası): The rank of the Captain of the Right Wing was very high. The rank of the Adjutant and Paymaster of a regiment was also high but such individuals were not from the military class and they dealt with clerical duties and equipment needed by the regiment. Captain of the Wing – The Captain of the Left Wing- (Kolağası – Sol Kolağası): Captain of the Wing or the Captain of the Left Wing was the senior Captain. If he was educated in the regiment, he was called "Ağa" but if he was the son of a pasha, he was called "Bey".
  5. Army/cavalry ranks. Cossack cavalry had distinct ranks starting with Sub-Polkovnik (a Sub-Colonel) and below: войсково́й старшина́ (Voiskovoy Starshina), есау́л (Yesaul), подъесау́л (Sub-Yesaul), со́тник (Sotnik), хору́нжий (Khorunzhiy)
  6. Captains in the cavalry and mounted transport corps were called Rittmeister.







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