Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde) is a republic located on an archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean, off the western coast of Africa. The previously-uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading centre for African slaves. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups.
|National motto: Unity, Work, Progress|
|Official language||Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese creoles|
|Capital and Largest City||Praia|
|Prime Minister||José Maria Neves|
- % water
| Ranked 146th |
|| Ranked 164th
| GDP (PPP)
600 millions $
|Time zone||UTC -1|
|National anthem||Cântico da Liberdade|
Table of contents
Main article: History of Cape Verde
Cape Verde was uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived in 1456, and the islands were thus made part of the Portuguese empire. Due to its location off the coast of Africa, Cape Verde became an important port, and was a major center of the slave trade.
In 1975, the islands achieved independence, partially due to the efforts of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC). After independence, the PAIGC attempted to unite Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau into one nation, the PAIGC controlling both governments, but a coup in the latter nation in 1980 ended these plans. In Cape Verde itself the PAICV (affiliated with the PAIGC) governed until elections were held in 1991 that resulted in a change of government. The PAICV was re-elected in 2001.
Main article: Politics of Cape Verde
The government of Cape Verde is based on a Constitution that was established in 1980. Elections are held for both the Prime Minister and President, who both govern for 5-year terms. Members of the General Assembly are elected as well, and they appoint the Supreme Court along with the President and Prime Minister.
Main article: Geography of Cape Verde
Cape Verde is an archipelago off the coast of Africa. It is formed by 10 main islands and about 8 islets. The main islands are:
- Barlaventos (northern island group)
- Sotaventos (southern island group)
Of these, only Santa Luzia is uninhabited. Presently it is a Natural Reserve. All islands are volcanic, but an active volcano exists on one of the islands, Fogo. See Mount Fogo.
Cape Verde is divided into 17 municipalities (concelhos, singular – concelho):
- Santo Antão island:
- Porto Novo
- Ribeira Grande
- São Vicente island:
- Santa Luzia island (included in S. Vicente concelho)
- São Nicolau island:
- Sal island:
- Boa Vista island:
- Maio island:
- Santiago island:
- Fogo island:
- São Filipe
- Brava island:
Main article: Economy of Cape Verde
Cape Verde is a small nation that lacks resources and has experienced severe droughts as well as water shortages. Agriculture is somewhat stymied by lack of rain, and is restricted to only four islands for most of the year. Most of the nation's GDP is from the services industry. Cape Verde has a large cooperation with Portugal in every level of the economy, leading it to make its currency fixed to the Euro and a growing economy. Former Portuguese prime minister José Manuel Durão Barroso, now (second semester 2004) president of the European Commission, has promised to help integrate Cape Verde within the European Union influence packed with a greater cooperation with Portugal. Cape Verde's economy has largely grown since the late 1990s, and is now considered a country of average human development. The Cape Verdean escudo is since 1999, through the Portuguese escudo, linked with the Euro.
Main article: Demographics of Cape Verde
Most inhabitants of Cape Verde are descendants of the white Portuguese settlers and black African slaves. More Cape Verdians live abroad than in Cape Verde, with significant emigrant Cape Verdian communities in the United States of America (264,900 Cape Verdians), Portugal (80,000) and Angola (45,000). There are also significant number of Cape Verdians in São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, France and the Netherlands.
Main article: Culture of Cape Verde
The culture of Cape Verde reflects its mixed Portuguese and African roots. It is well known for its diverse forms of music (such as Morna, Capeverdian Fado) and dance (such as Funana, mixed Portuguese and African dance), that are reflective of the diverse origins of Cape Verde's residents. Indigenously, the term "Cabo" is used to refer to residents as well as the culture of Cape Verde.
The capeverdean literature is one of the most richest of lusitanian Africa.
- Poets: Frusoni Sergio, Tavares Eugénio, B.Léza, João Cleofas Martins, Romano Luís de Madeira Melo, Ovídio Martins, Barbosa Jorge, Fortes Corsino António, Baltasar Lopes (Oswaldo Alcântara), João Vário, Oswaldo Osório, Arménio Vieira, Vadinho Velhinho, José Luís Tavares, etc.
- Authors: Manuel Lopes – Movimento Claridade, Almeida Germano, Luís Romano de Madeira Melo, Germano de Almeida, Orlanda Amarilis, Jorge Vera Cruz Barbosa, Pedro Cardoso, Mário José Domingues, Daniel Filipe, Mário Alberto Fonseca de Almeida, Corsino António Fortes, Arnaldo Carlos de Vasconcelos França, António Aurélio Gonçalves, Aguinaldo Brito Fonseca, Ovídio de Sousa Martins , Osvaldo Osório, Dulce Almada Duarte, Manuel Veiga
- Compositor: Manuel de Novas, Vasco Martins
- Famous tales: Ti Lobo and Chibinho
Cape Verde's official language is Portuguese, but Portuguese Creoles (Crioulo, Criol, Krioulo, Caboverdiano) are widely used. Each of the 9 inhabited islands of Cape Verde has its own creole. We can distinguish between two main groups:
- Sotavento Creoles: Creole of Santiago (Badiu), Maio, Fogo and Brava.
- Barlavento Creoles: Creole of São Vicente (Criol d'Soncente, Criol d' Saocente), São Nicolau, Sal, Boavista and Santo Antão
The greatest differences in the different capeverdean creole languages are between the creole of Santiago and the creole of Santo Antão.
There exist no complete bible translation. Sergio Frusoni translated however Bartolomeo Rossetti's version of the New Testament from the Roman dialect (ER VANGELO SECONNO NOANTRI) into the Capeverdean creole of São Vicente under the title: Vangêle contód d'nôs móda.
The crioulo language was promoted for example by following poets or authors:
- Crioulo of Brava: Tavares Eugénio, Deirdre Meintel
- Crioulo of Santiago: António de Paula Brito, Carlos Barbosa, Tomé Varela da Silva, Daniel Spínola
- Crioulo of São Nicolau: Eduaro Augusto Cardoso, Baltasar Lopes da Silva
- Crioulo of Santo Antão: Romano Luís de Madeira Melo
- Crioulo of São Vicente: Frusoni Sergio, Ovídio Martins
- Sotavento Creoles: Armando Napoleão Rodrigues Fernandes, Veiga Manuel, Marlyse Baptista, Nicolas Quint
- Barlavento Creoles: Armando Napoleão Rodrigues Fernandes, Maria Dulce de Oliveira Almada
Capeverdian Creole (Crioulo) links
- Sergio Frusoni (Work of Sergio Frusoni-Crioulo of São Vicente)
- Adriano Gominho (Creole of São Nicolau)
- "Morna aguada" from Eugenio Tavares (Creole of Brava)
- Extracts from 'OS LUSÍADAS' in the creole of Santo Antão
- A Semana (Praia,1991-), Expresso das Ilhas, Journal O Cidadao (São Vicente) , Jornal Horizonte (Praia, 1988-), Terra Nova (S.Vicente, 1975-), Artiletra (S.Vicente, 1991-)
- Communications in Cape Verde
- Transportation in Cape Verde
- Military of Cape Verde
- Foreign relations of Cape Verde
- Community of Portuguese Language Countries
- Public holidays in Cape Verde
- Immigration History to United States
External links and references
- Cape Verde Photo Gallery
- Cape Verde Domain Registration Faça o registo de seu domínio
- The Cape Verdean Portal
- Cape Verde Portal
- Much of the material in these articles comes from the CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website.
- International Searchengine for Cabo Verde
- Cape Verde Photogallery
- Capeverdean cultural resource site
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