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Baker Island

Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′ N 176°31′ W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. It is about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia.

Baker Island National Wildlife Refuge consists of the 405 acre (1.64 km²) island and a surrounding 30,504 acres (123.45 km²) of submerged land. The island is now a National Wildlife Refuge managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as an insular area under the U.S. Department of the Interior. Baker Island is an unincorporated and unorganized territory of the U.S..

Its defense is the responsibility of the United States; though uninhabited, it is visited annually by the U.S. Coast Guard.

Table of contents

History

The United States of America took possession of the island in 1857, claimed under the Guano Islands Act of 1856. Its guano deposits were mined by U.S. and British companies during the second half of the 19th century. In 1935, a short-lived attempt at colonization was begun on this island, with a population of four in the settlement Meyerton – as well as on nearby Howland Island – but was disrupted by World War II and thereafter abandoned. Feral cats were eradicated from the island in 1964.

American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II; occupied by U.S. military during World War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service only and generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and remnants of structures from early settlement are located near the middle of the west coast; visited annually by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (July 2000 est.)

See also the History of the Pacific Islands.

Geography

Located in the North Pacific Ocean at 0°13′ N 176°31′ W, the island is tiny at just 1.64 km² (405 acres) and 4.8 km of coastline. The climate is equatorial, with little rainfall, constant wind and a burning sun. The terrain is low-lying and sandy: a coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef with a depressed central area. The highest point is 8 meters above sea level.

There are no natural fresh water resources. The island is treeless, with sparse vegetation consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, low growing shrubs and some scattered ruins. The island is primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife.

The U.S. claims an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles (370 km) and territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22 km).

The island's Time zone: UTC -12

Transportation

There are no ports or harbors, with anchorage available only offshore. There is one boat landing area along the middle of the west coast. There is an abandoned World War II runway (1,665 m) which is completely covered with vegetation and unusable.

Natural hazards: The narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard and there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

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Insular areas American Samoa | Baker Island | Guam | Howland Island | Jarvis Island | Johnston Atoll | Kingman Reef | Midway Atoll | Navassa Island | Northern Mariana Islands | Palmyra Atoll | Puerto Rico | Virgin Islands | Wake Island


Countries and territories in Oceania
Australia | American Samoa | Baker Island | Cook Islands | East Timor | Fiji | French Polynesia | Guam | Howland Island | Jarvis Island | Johnston Atoll | Kingman Reef | Kiribati | Marshall Islands | Federated States of Micronesia | Midway Atoll | Nauru | New Caledonia | New Zealand | Niue | Norfolk Island | Northern Mariana Islands | Palau | Palmyra Atoll | Papua New Guinea | Pitcairn | Samoa | Solomon Islands | Tokelau | Tonga | Tuvalu | Vanuatu | Wallis and Futuna | Wake Island







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