Table of contents
- 48 BC – Roman Civil War: Battle of Pharsalus – Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.
- AD 378 – Battle of Adrianople: A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens is defeated by the Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens is killed along with 2/3 of his army.
- 681 – Bulgaria is founded as a Khanate on the south bank of the Danube, after defeating the Byzantine armies of Emperor Constantine IV south of the Danube delta.
- 1173 – Construction of the (Leaning) Tower of Pisa begins, and it takes two centuries to complete.
- 1483 – Opening of the Sistine Chapel
- 1842 – Webster-Ashburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United States-Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Cedar Mountain – At Cedar Mountain, Virginia, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson narrowly defeats Union forces under General John Pope.
- 1877 – Indian Wars: Battle of Big Hole – Near Big Hole River in Montana, a small band of Nez Percé Indians who refused government orders to move to a reservation, clash with the United States Army. The army lost 29 soldiers and Indians lost 89 warriors in a US Army win.
- 1892 – Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph.
- 1902 – Edward VII is crowned king of the United Kingdom.
- 1930 – Betty Boop premiers in the animated film Dizzy Dishes.
- 1936 – 1936 Summer Olympics: Jesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the games becoming the first American to win four medals in one Olympics.
- 1942 – Indian leader, Mohandas Gandhi is arrested in Bombay by British forces.
- 1944 – The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey the Bear for the first time.
- 1945 – World War II: An atomic bomb nicknamed "Fat Man", with an energy of 92 terajoules (22,000 tons of TNT), is dropped by the B-29 Bockscar on the city of Nagasaki, Japan at 11:02 AM (local time). An estimated 60,000–80,000 are killed and more 60,000 injured.
- 1947 – Beginning the 6 Scout World Jamboree – see Jamboree Scout 1947 (in French)
- 1965 – The Parliament of the Federation of Malaysia agrees to expel Singapore from the Federation, making it an independent country.
- 1965 – Space disasters: Fire at Titan missile base near Little Rock, Arkansas kills 53 construction workers.
- 1967 – Vietnam War: Operation Cochise initiated – United States Marines begin a new operation in the Que Son Valley.
- 1969 – Members of a cult led by Charles Manson murder five people including Sharon Tate, Jay Sebring and, Abigail Folger.
- 1974 – Richard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office, an action reportedly taken to prevent time from being wasted in impeachment proceedings in response to his role in the Watergate scandal. His Vice President, Gerald Ford, takes the oath of office and becomes the 38th president.
- 1986 – Headington Shark erected in Oxford.
- 1988 – Wayne Gretzky is traded from the Edmonton Oilers to the Los Angeles Kings in one of the most controversial transactions in hockey history.
- 1989 – Kaifu Toshiki becomes Prime Minister of Japan.
- 1993 – King Albert II of Belgium is sworn into office nine days after the death of his brother, King Baudouin. The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan loses a 38-year hold on national leadership as Hosokawa Morihiro becomes the first non-LDP Prime Minister of Japan since 1955.
- 1999 – Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires his Prime Minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time fires his entire cabinet. The Diet of Japan enacts a law establishing the Hinomaru and Kimi Ga Yo as the official national flag and national anthem.
- 2000 – A Piper Navajo and a Piper Seminole collide in mid-air over a housing development in Burlington, New Jersey killing 11
- 2001 – US President George W. Bush announces his support for federal funding of limited research on embryonic stem cells.
- 2001 – In Jerusalem 15 persons were murdered in the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing and 130 wounded.
- 2004 – The Who play at The Hollywood Bowl.
- 1593 – Izaak Walton, angler (d. 1683)
- 1757 – Thomas Telford, civil engineer (d. 1834)
- 1776 – Amedeo Avogadro, chemist (d. 1856)
- 1797 – Charles Robert Malden, British naval officer who discovered Malden Island (d. 1855)
- 1805 – Joseph Locke, railway and civil engineer (d. 1860)
- 1875 – Reynaldo Hahn, composer (d. 1947)
- 1896 – Jean Piaget, child psychologist (d. 1980)
- 1899 – P. L. Travers, author of Mary Poppins (d. 1996)
- 1902 – Zino Francescatti, French violinist (d. 1991)
- 1914 – Tove Jansson, author of the Moomin books (d. 2001)
- 1919 – Joop den Uyl, Dutch prime minister (d. 1987)
- 1919 – Ralph Houk, professional baseball player and manager (MLB)
- 1922 – Philip Larkin, English poet (d. 1985)
- 1927 – Daniel Keyes, author
- 1927 – Robert Shaw, actor (d. 1978)
- 1928 – Bob Cousy, professional basketball player (NBA)
- 1933 – Tetsuko Kuroyanagi – Japanese television personality, children's author.
- 1938 – Rod Laver, tennis player
- 1944 – Sam Elliott, actor
- 1945 – Ken Norton, boxing champion
- 1945 – Posy Simmonds, cartoonist
- 1949 – Jonathan Kellerman, mystery writer
- 1957 – Melanie Griffith, actress (Working Girl, The Bonfire of the Vanities)
- 1962 – Kevin Mack, American football player
- 1963 – Whitney Houston, singer and actress
- 1964 – Brett Hull, professional hockey player (NHL)
- 1967 – Deion Sanders, American football player
- 1968 – Gillian Anderson, actress
- 1968 – Eric Bana, actor
- 1969 – Troy Percival, Major League Baseball All-Star
- 1976 – Jessica Capshaw, actress (The Practice)
- 1976 – Rhona Mitra, actress (The Practice)
- 1977 – Chamique Holdsclaw, professional basketball player (WNBA)
- 1977 – Mikael Silvestre, football player
- 1978 – Audrey Tautou, actress
- 1982 – Karol Bancerz, polish journalism
- 1994 – Forrest Landis, American actor
- 117 – Trajan, Roman emperor
- 378 – Valens, Roman emperor (killed in battle)
- 803 – Byzantine Empress Irene
- 1048 – Pope Damasus II
- 1250 – King Eric IV of Denmark
- 1919 – Ruggiero Leoncavallo, composer
- 1942 – Edith Stein, (St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross) at Auschwitz
- 1945 – Harry Hillman, American athlete
- 1962 – Hermann Hesse, author (b. 1877)
- 1967 – Joe Orton, English writer (d. 1933)
- 1969 – Sharon Tate, actress
- 1969 – Jay Sebring, Hollywood hair stylist
- 1969 – Abigail Folger, Coffee heiress
- 1975 – Dmitri Shostakovich, Russian composer
- 1995 – Jerry Garcia, guitarist: Grateful Dead
- 2002 – Peter Neville, anarchist, sociologist and peace activist
- 2003 – Ray Harford, football manager
- 2003 – Gregory Hines, actor, tap dancer (b. 1946)
Holidays and observances
|January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December|