| Centuries: |
18th century – 19th century – 20th century
| Decades: |
1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869
Table of contents
Events and trends
- The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869.
- James Clerk Maxwell publishes his equations that quantify the relationship between electricity and magnetism, and shows that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation
- Gregor Mendel formulates Mendel's laws of inheritance, the basis for genetics
- Dmitri Mendeleev discovers the periodic table
War, peace and politics
- Italian unification under King Victor Emmanuel II. Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States (March 17, 1861 – September 20, 1870).
- American Civil War fought between the remaining United States of America under President Abraham Lincoln and the self-declared Confederate States of America under President Jefferson Davis (April 12, 1861 – April 9, 1865). Beginning of the Reconstruction era under President Andrew Johnson (1865 – 1869).
- French occupation of Mexico (1863 – 1867). Replacement of President of Mexico Benito Juárez (1861 – 1863) at first with Juan Nepomuceno Almonte (1863 – 1864) and then by Emperor Maximilian of Mexico (1864 – 1867). Benito Juárez eventually manages to recover his position (1867 – 1872).
- Meiji Restoration in Japan (1866 – 1869). Tokugawa Yoshinobu, 15th and last of the Tokugawa shoguns loses control to the Meiji Emperor. A series of reforms follows. The samurai class fails to survive while the Daimyo turn to politics.
- Canada becomes an independent nation
- U.S. president Abraham Lincoln is assassinated, April 15, 1865.
Culture and religion
- In Catholicism, reaction against higher criticism and the liberal movement in Europe
- The Football Association is formed in the United Kingdom, paving the way for Association football to become the world's predominant spectator sport
- Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary)
- Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald (Canada)
- Emperor Napoleon III (France)
- King Victor Emmanuel II (Italy)
- Pope Pius IX
- Emperor Alexander II (Russia)
- Queen Victoria (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord Palmerston (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister Lord Derby (United Kingdom)
- Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (United Kingdom)
- President James Buchanan (United States)
- President Abraham Lincoln (United States)
- President Andrew Johnson (United States)