1777 1778 1779 – 1780 – 1781 1782 1783
| Decades: |
1750s 1760s 1770s – 1780s – 1790s 1800s 1810s
| Centuries: |
17th century – 18th century – 19th century
1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar).
- January 16 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent
- February, Armed Neutrality of the North alliance formed between Denmark, Sweden, and Russia.
- March 26 – The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, the first Sunday newspaper in Britain
- May 12 – American Revolutionary War: Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces.
- May 29 – American Revolutionary War: Loyalist forces under Col. Banastre Tarleton kill surrendering American soldiers in the Waxhaw Massacre.
- August 16 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Camden – The British defeat the Americans near Camden, South Carolina.
- September 25 – Benedict Arnold flees to British-held New York
- October 2 – American Revolutionary War: British spy John Andre is hanged by American forces.
- October 10-16 – Great hurricane flattens the islands of Barbados, Martinique and St. Eustatius
- November 29 – Maria Theresa of Austria dies and her Habsburg dominions pass to her ambitious son, Joseph II, who has already been Holy Roman Emperor since 1765.
- Britain attacks the United Provinces before it can join the Neutral Alliance, because of its support for the American uprising.
- First Epsom Derby horse race run at Epsom Downs, Surrey, England.
- Emperor Kokaku ascends to the throne of Japan
- In Ireland, Lady Berry, who is sentenced to death for the murder of her son, is released when she agrees to become an executioner (retires 1810)
- Good grain and wine harvest in France
- April 29 – Charles Nodier, French author (d. 1844)
- June 1 – Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian military strategist (d. 1831)
- August 1 – Francis Scott Key, American lawyer and poet (d. 1843)
- December 26 – Mary Fairfax Somerville, British mathematician (d. 1872)
- John Bird Sumner, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1862)