1564 1565 1566 – 1567 – 1568 1569 1570
| Decades: |
1530s 1540s 1550s – 1560s – 1570s 1580s 1590s
| Centuries: |
15th century – 16th century – 17th century
- The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. He replaces Margaret of Parma as Governor of the Netherlands. Prince William of Orange is outlawed, and Count Lamoral of Egmont imprisoned.
- February 10 – Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, husband of Mary I of Scotland, is murdered at the Provost's House in Edinburgh.
- May 15 – Mary I of Scotland marries James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell.
- June 15 – Mary I of Scotland is defeated at Carberry Hill by the Scottish nobles. She is imprisoned in Lochleven Castle.
- July 24 – Mary I of Scotland abdicates the throne, succeeded by her son King James VI of Scotland.
- July 29 – James VI is crowned at Stirling.
- Semptember 9 – At a dinner, the Duke of Alva arrests the Count of Egmont and the Count of Horne for treason.
- September 29 – Beginning of the Second War of Religion in France when the Prince of Condé and Gaspard de Coligny fail in an attempt to capture King Charles IX and his mother at Meaux. The Huguenots do capture several cities (including Orleans), and march on Paris.
- November 10 – Battle of Saint-Denis – Anne de Montmorency, with 16,000 Royalists falls on Condé's 3,500 Huguenots. The Huguenots surprisingly hold on for some hours before being driven off. Montmorency is mortally wounded.
- King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway founds Fredrikstad in Norway.
- Richard Burbage, English actor (d. 1619)
- Samuel de Champlain, French explorer (d. 1635)
- Jacques Clément, French assassin of Henry III of France (d. 1589)
- Thomas Nashe, English poet (d. 1601)
- February 12 – Thomas Campion, English poet and composer (d. 1620)
- May 15 – Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer (d. 1643)
- November 1 – Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, conde de Gondomar, Spanish diplomat (d. 1626)
- November 14 – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (d. 1625)
- December 15 – Christoph Demantius, German composer (d. 1643)