1538 1539 1540 – 1541 – 1542 1543 1544
| Decades: |
1510s 1520s 1530s – 1540s – 1550s 1560s 1570s
| Centuries: |
15th century – 16th century – 17th century
- The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish
- February 12 – Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile.
- May 8 – Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River naming it Rio de Espiritu Santo.
- May 23 – Jacques Cartier departs Saint-Malo France on his third voyage.
- August 29 – The Janissaries of Suleiman the Magnificent take Buda by ruse, hiding themselves as tourists.
- Muslims seal off The Golden Gate in Jerusalem.
- Irish Parliament declares Ireland to be a kingdom
- March 21 – Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1587)
- El Greco, Spanish artist (d. 1614)
- Hatano Hideharu, Japanese samurai (d. 1579)