1257 1258 1259 – 1260 – 1261 1262 1263
| Decades: |
1230s 1240s 1250s – 1260s – 1270s 1280s 1290s
| Centuries: |
12th century – 13th century – 14th century
1260 state leaders
Table of contents
War and politics
- September 4 – The forces of King Manfred of Sicily, in league with the Ghibellines, defeat the Guelphs at Monte Aperto.
- King Otakar II of Bohemia captures Styria from King Bela IV of Hungary in the Battle of Kressenbrunn.
- The Baltic Samogatians and Curonians defeat the Teutonic knights in the Battle of Durbe.
- The Duchy of Saxony is divided into Saxony-Lauenberg and Saxony-Wittenberg, marking the end of the first Saxon state.
- War breaks out in the Valais (today in Switzerland) as the Bishopry of Sion defends against an invasion by the County of Savoy.
- October 24 – The spectacular Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France; the cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Construction on the Dunkeld Cathedral begins in Perthshire, Scotland.
- Construction begins on the cathedral at Meißen.
- Construction begins on the cathedral at Schwerin.
- Jacobus de Voragine compiles his work, the Golden Legend, a late medieval best-seller.
- Nicola Pisano sculpts the pulpit of the Pisa Baptistery.
- German musical theorist Franco of Cologne publishes Ars Cantus Mensurabilis, in which he advances a new theory of musical notation in which the length of a musical note is denoted by the shape of that note, a system still used today.
- The mosaic Christ between the Virgin and St Minias is made on the facade of Florence's Basilica di San Miniato al Monte.
- May 5 – Kublai Khan becomes ruler of the Mongol Empire.
- September 3 – The Mamluks defeat the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine, marking their first decisive defeat and the point of maximum expansion of the Mongol Empire.
- The Sena Dynasty of Bengal falls.
- The Chinese era Jingding begins and ends in the Northern Song Dynasty of China.
- The Japanese Shogen era ends, and the Bun'o era begins.
- The Hindu Silharya Dynasty, which ruled an area around Mumbai, ends.
- The newly formed Sukhothai kingdom of Thailand adopts Theravada Buddhism.
- October 24 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt, is assassinated by Baibars, who seizes power for himself.
- Andronicus II, Byzantine Emperor
- Enguerrand de Marigny, minister to King Philip IV of France
- Guillaume de Nogaret, keeper of the seal to King Philip IV of France (year very uncertain)
- Henry Cobham, 1st Baron Cobham
- Matthew Csák, ruler of the Váh and the Tatras regions in present-day Slovakia
- Maximus Planudes, Byzantine grammarian and theologian
- Meister Eckhart, German theologian, philosopher and mystic
- October 24 – Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt
- Aymer de Valence, Bishop of Winchester
- Franciscus Accursius, Italian jurist
- Matilda II of Bologne, sovereign Countess of Bologne
- Disney comic book character Sir Swamphole McDuck dies.
- In the television series Babylon 5, the first Shadow War occurs between the Shadows and an alliance led by the Vorlons and Minbari.